Abutilon, or a cableual, (latch. AbutíLON) — the genus of evergreen annual and perennial herbs, halfbrushes, shrubs.
Abutilon is known among flower lovers as room maple or cord. This unpretentious plant, although it is considered resilient, requires a certain care, without which you cannot achieve active growth and lush flowering.
What is a plant?
Abutilon (abutilon) — An extensive family from the Malvov family. It includes evergreen perennials and grassy annuals. Many of its species are grown as an indoor plant. This flower is a close relative of hibiscus, and the people often call it Indian mallow — for visual similarity to a popular plant.
Features that attract lovers of indoor plants:
- The original shape of the leaves, it was she who caused one of the names of plants — room maple;
- Longterm flowering — In conditions of indoor care, the bush can bloom from April to November;
- Rapid growth, unpretentiousness and simple care.
Abutilon has not only beautiful leaves, but also unusual flowers. They are lowered down and resemble Chinese lanterns. The buds do not bloom for long, but new ones quickly grow up to replace the wilted and fallen.
In warm countries, Abutilon is of industrial importance. From his shoots make ropes, ropes, burlap, wicker products.
The height of indoor maples depends on the type and variety of plants. But they have botanical features common to all varieties.
Characteristic external signs:
- Flowers are formed on elongated pedicels — At the ends of the shoots, in the sinuses of leaves. Moreover, the growth of the latter after the appearance of flowers continues. The flowers reach 4-8 cm in diameter, they can be smooth or terry.
The shape of the buds is different — funnelshaped, bellshaped, flatcolored. On the petals — pronounced veins.
- The leaves reach a length of 10-20 cm. They are painted green, but can be with white interspersed. Leaves of three or fivelobed, edges — Called. The form — ovoid or elongated-oval.
- Stems — flexible, branch well, purple-brown. Covered with fine bristles. With home cultivation, reach 1.5-3 m.
The plant, possessing large leaves that evaporate moisture well, becomes an active moisturizer. The cord is recommended to plant in dry rooms — It will increase humidity in them.
Where it grows?
Abutilon is known to lovers of flowers as an indoor plant, but it grows safely in nature. True, only in a warm climate — tropical and subtropical. An evergreen bush with tunics is found in the tropics of Asia, Africa, South America, in the Hawaiian Islands, but China is considered to be his homeland.
In Eurasia and other countries with a harsh climate, the cord is considered a decorative culture and is grown only in rooms, greenhouses. The cord loves heat, so for the winter it — If it grows on a terrace or in the yard, it must be brought into a heated room. If the plant provides good care, it can live for several years.
Types and varieties
In the genus of abutylons, there are over 100 types, and even more varieties. They are distinguished by the height of the shrub, the length of the shoots, the color of the buds and other signs. Most often, flower growers choose a plant based on its size and color «flashlights» — They are peach, purple, salmon, pink, red.
Not only shrubs, but also halfbrushes, small trees and even herbaceous plants can occur among abutylons.
Popular species and varieties:
- Bella. Height — 30-40 cm. The flowers are white, with pink, red, yellow or cream shades. The diameter of the bud — up to 5 cm. Not multiplied by cuttings.
- Belvoy. Stretched over the summer to 2 m. Densely bush with magnificent flowering. Buds up to 5 cm, yellow, red pink, orange. Withstands temperature lowering to +5°C.
- Organza. Height — 30-40 cm. It branches strongly. The flowers are white, golden, pink, red. The leaves are wide.
- Juliet. Height — 1.5 m. Evergreen shrub with 6 cm buds in diameter. Capable of growing in the shade.
- Sello. Grows well with scattered light. Height 2-2.5 m. The second name «Grandmother’s maple». Orange flowers, large.
- Theofrast. Weed plant. Annoletter up to 2 mu flows pale yellow.
- Megapotamsky. Perennial for the garden and premises. Height — 1-2.5 m. Friday leaves, interspersed. Red flowers with yellow spots, up to 3 cm in diameter.
- Grapes. Height — 1.5 m. The leaves are long — up to 15 cm. Flowering is thick. Lilac buds, bellshaped or spherical.
Indoor maple, bought in a reliable and proven place, do not immediately land. It is placed in a bright place — For a couple of days to adapt, and then transplanted into a pot, which should be somewhat larger than a transport capacity.
Planting can be carried out with seeds, in this case seedlings are transplanted into pots — one or several pieces. The number of plants in one container depends on its size and the purpose of growing.
The soil should be fertile and loose, it can be prepared independently:
- Mix the leaf and turf soil equally;
- Mix leaf and coniferous ground (1: 1);
- Add humus to garden soil (4: 1).
It is recommended to add humus, large sand, peat and coconut substrate to the soil. Soil for flowers should only be taken in proven, not infected with microorganisms and insect places. Regardless of where the land was taken, it must be disinfected — Suffer in the oven or spilled with potassium permanganate.
So that indoor maple grows well and bloom for a long time, does not hurt and not die ahead of time, it is important to provide it with the appropriate growing conditions.
Abutilon care rules:
- Temperature. Summer — at the level of +22…+27°C, in the cold season — not less than + 15°C. At high temperatures, the plant dries, at low drops the leaves.
- Lighting. The plant needs light, but not direct sunlight — They can cause a burn. Scattered lighting is recommended. The best place in the house — Near the windows overlooking the southern side.
- Spraying. The plant is not particularly demanding on indicators of air humidity, but with excessive dryness — When the heating season or in the summer heat begins, it is necessary to spray the leaves with water. Under the sun, the procedure is not carried out — Leaves can get burns.
- Watering. Moisturization should be moderate. Lack of water leads to falling foliage and stopping growth. With an excess of moisture, the leaves dry out in the plant, buds fall off, roots rot. In summer, the flower is watered 2-3 times a week.
The soil is recommended to mulch with a coconut substrate. When the plant fades, watering is reduced to once every 10 days. For watering, the defended water at room temperature is used.
- Top dressing. Due to rapid growth, the maple requires a lot of nutrients. Fertilizers are made from spring to autumn — every two weeks. It is recommended to alternate mineral and organic fertilizers.
During flowering, it is better to make top dressing with potassium and phosphorus — They have a good effect on the formation of buds. After trimming faded buds and leaves, more nitrogen is introduced. From November to March, the plant is not fed, so as not to exhaust it with excessive top dressing.
- Transfer. The plant is transplanted from a pot into a pot by transshipment. Refresh the soil, fill up new soil. Slices of roots — on damaged roots, sprinkled with corner. It is better to transplant maple on cloudy days.
- Cutting. The overgrown shoots are cut in February, forming the crown to their liking. The procedure stimulates the increase in lateral shoots on the central branches. With annual pruning, the plant blooms better, buds are more formed. In the spring and summer, the shoots cut off in flowering maples — dried, damaged, finished flowering.
Methods of reproduction
Indoor maple fans of flowers propagate in two ways — cuttings or seeds. You can get a healthy and beautiful flower with any propagation method, most importantly, know the nuances of growing both options.
Take seeds in trusted stores and from reliable suppliers. This will not waste time and effort and guarantee the receipt of the variety identical to the promised.
How to propagate Abutilon with seeds:
- Wrap the seeds in a wet rag. Water should be boiled, settled or melt. If the seeds are freshly shared, you can plant them without germination.
- Seeds — sprouted or unprofitable, deepen into the soil. The former is 4-6 mm, the latter is 2-3 mm. Intervals between neighboring seeds — 2-3 cm.
- Maintain the temperature at the level of +21…+27°C.
Growing seedlings during propagation by seeds is not mandatory. You can immediately plant the seeds in the pot, and not in the container for seedlings, cassettes or glasses.
Optimal time for sowing — February March. But autumn landing is also allowed. It is used if you are going to grow plants for open ground.
Cuttings are obtained, cutting plants. It is clear that this method allows you to get a fullfledged bush faster than when planting with seeds.
How to propagate Abutilon with cuttings:
- Cut the fading shoots in an adult plant. Best planting material for propagation — scraps with 2-3 internodes.
- Cut off the lower leaves, flowers and buds in cut shoots.
- Put the prepared cuttings in the water and cover with a plastic film/package.
- So that the planting material does not bother, throw activated carbon into the water — One tablet for 1 stalk is enough.
- Когда на черенках появятся корни длиной 3 см, пересадите их в заранее подготовленную почву.
Diseases and pests
If the growing conditions are grossly violated, indoor maple begins to get sick. Weakened plants are also actively attacking insect pests.
Abutilon’s problems and the fight against them:
- The leaves turn pale. Cause — Lack of lighting. The stems stretch and thin out. The pot is rearranged to the light, and too elongated shoots — Cut.
- Leaves turn off and turn yellow. The plant is removed from direct sunlight, increased air humidity, sprayed with water.
- The leaves lost their elasticity. Perhaps the soil is dry and the plant is not enough moisture. The pot is placed in the water for half an hour, and then they are more carefully monitored by the humidity.
- Aphid. These small insects usually affect the upper parts of the stems, concentrate on the tops and suck juices from leaves and shoots. Plants fade and die if nothing is done. Recommended spraying with insecticides — Actellik and analogues, as well as soap solution.
- Shield. Spots appear on the leaves. Shields secrete sticky juice that covers the entire plant. The leaves turn yellow, fall, the plant dies. To save the maple, it is sprayed with soap solution. With severe lesions, insecticides are used — Inta-Vir, confidor or their analogues.
- Belkolka. Impresses the lower parts of the leaves. Drink juices, causing their yellowing and falling. Can easily destroy the plant. It is recommended to water the plants less and make top dressing in time, spray with an actellik or decis.
- Red spider mite. These insects focus on the bottom of the leaves, entangling it with a thin spider. The leaves become yellow and fall. The tick usually appears with insufficiently wet air. Plants are sprayed with acaricides — preparations against ticks.
For the preparation of soap solution, take up laundry soap. He is rubbed on a grater and bred in water — 300 g per 10 l of water.
Experts advise growing at home mainly hybrid varieties of abutylon. They are hardy, compact and do not create special problems for their owners. But there is
Typical errors when growing indoor maples:
- The size of the pot is not suitable. The plant must be constantly transplanted into a large container. Otherwise, it will begin to slow down in development, get sick. If the roots are visible from the drainage holes, and the flowers are smaller — Abutilon needs to urgently transplant.
Each subsequent pot should be approximately 2 cm more than the previous. Perennials living for more than 8 years have to grow in tubs.
- The plant does not bloom. The reasons can be different — perhaps missed or not pruning was done at all. Also, the absence of flowers may be associated with a lack of light.
- The leaves turn yellow. Frequent reason — stagnation of water in the pallet. It is necessary to pour it out an hour after watering.
Abituno is ideal for home and greenhouse growing. If it ensure timely care, moderation in warmth and humidity, and then it will delight its owners with long and magnificent flowering.