Adamantisaurus Adamantisaurus dinosaurs from the group of titanosaurs

Adamantisaurus (lat.: Adamantisaurus) is a genus of the infraorder of sauropods (Sauropoda) from the group of titanosaurs (Titanosauria), which lived on the territory of modern South America in the Upper Cretaceous period.

Like all sauropods, it was a large, four-legged, herbivorous dinosaur with a long neck and tail. Until now, only 6 anterior tail vertebrae connected to each other, as well as 2 lower hemapophyses (processes of the tail vertebrae), which were discovered in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, are known to science. The genus Adamantisaurus, represented by the single species Adamantisaurus mezzalirai, was first described in 2006 by the Brazilian paleontologists Santucci and Bertini.

The generic name “Adamantisaurus” indicates that dinosaur fossils belong to the Adamantina Formation. The specific name “mezzalirai” is given in honor of the paleontologist Sergio Mezzalira (Mezzalira), who collected the bones and left the first mention of them in the scientific literature. Thus, the full name “Adamantisaurus mezzalirai” can be translated into Russian as “Adamantisaurus Mezzalirai”.

At the time of discovery, 6 tail vertebrae were anatomically connected. It is assumed that this is a series of caudal vertebrae from the second to the seventh. Vertebrae strongly concave anteriorly.

They have several autopomorphies (distinguishing features) that make it possible to separate this genus from others: for example, the processes of the vertebrae directed upwards are slightly bent back and have upper ends enlarged laterally; postzygapophyses and prezygapophyses (mechanical elements connecting the vertebrae) also have enlarged articulation surfaces, and the articulation surface of the postzygapophyses is concave.

These vertebrae were discovered back in 1958, during the construction of the railway from Adamantina to Irapura, by paleontologist Sergio Mezzalira, along with several teeth of titanosaurs. The find site is located near the city of Florida Paulista in the southwest of the state of São Paulo and belongs to the Adamantina formation, which is part of the Bauru formation suite.

The exact age of the Bauru Formation is still disputed, but the authors of the first description of Adamantisaurus suggest that the bones belong to the layers from the late Campanian to the early Maastrichtian.

Initially (in 1966, 1989), Mezzalira attributed not only the discovered vertebrae to the same individual of Adamantisaurus, but also the femur, extracted by the builders of the railway from the same place where the vertebrae were later found. However, the authors of the first scientific description considered that this bone probably belonged not to this adamantasaurus, but to another individual, since, for example, it is relatively small compared to the vertebrae and differs from them in terms of the degree of preservation.

In addition, in the Adamantine Formation, there are often places where several species are found nearby at once, which suggests that the mentioned femur could belong to another species.

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