Even in the 21st century, Africa is considered a very mysterious and unusual continent for most travelers from Europe, North America and Asia. Even scientists who have lived a large number of years in Africa do not fully understand all the characteristics of the inhabitants, their customs and culture.
Africa is located on both sides of the equator. It is distinguished by a very hot climate and a large number of deserts. Also on the territory of Central and South Africa there are savannah plains and jungle.
Number and density, place in the population
Africa is a very large mainland on which about 55 states are located. The population is one billion people. 130 peoples live here, of which 20 have more than 5 million people each, and 100 more than 1 million people each. About 8,000 nationalities are allocated in total. The total population of Africa is one billion people. She ranks second after Eurasia. Feedness in Africa 2.5 times higher than mortality. The average population growth is 3 percent.
The population density is relatively small 30 people per square kilometer. However, this factor is strongly affected by natural conditions and historical facts. The highest density belongs to the island of Mauritius 500 people per square kilometer. A similar density rests on the Comor and Seychelles, as well as in Rwanda and Burundi, where about 200 people per square kilometer. The density in Botswan, Libya, Namibia and Western Sahara is lower. There are only 1-2 people per square kilometer.
African population density
The indigenous population
Almost all of the indigenous population of Africa are representatives of the Negroid race. They are resettled on the main part of Africa south of Sahara. Differ in the dark skin color of various shades.
Also, indigenous people are tribes of pygmies, tutsi, Bushmen and gottentots. Pygmies tribes are formed by residents of equatorial forests of Central Africa. Unlike representatives of the Negroid race, they have a lighter shade of skin, small growth and thin lips. The people of Tutsi are distinguished by their high growth. It is common for them to have elongated and narrow faces, long legs. This type is due to their way of life in territories with a deserted and semidesert climate.
Among the indigenous people of Africa there are no pure representatives of the Mongoloid race. Many peoples have acquired some signs, adapting to living conditions in deserted and semidesert places. Such nations are Bushmen and Gottentotovs. They are distinguished by curly hair, wide noses, yellowish skin and flat faces.
The composition of the population and their features
To date, Africa consists of people of various anthropological types related to a variety of races. The northern part of the continent is represented by peoples belonging to the Indo-Mediterranean race. They are characterized by a swarthy skin color, dark eyes and hair. They are called Arabs and Berbers. Among the Berbers there are also lighteyed and fairhaired representatives.
In the territory of the south, peoples live from Sahara, which belong to a large Negro Australoid race. This race includes three trains: Negro, Negril and Bushmenskaya. Among them, the peoples of the Negro race who live in Western Sudan, on the Guinean coast and Central Sudan are most often found. These peoples are characterized by dark skin color, dark hair and eyes. They are also distinguished by the structure of the hair that looks like spirals, puffy lips and a wide nose.
A typical feature of the peoples of the upper Nile is high growth, which exceeds 180 centimeters. Representatives of the Negroilian race, as a rule, are stunted. They live in the tropical forests of the basins of the Congo and Welle rivers. In addition to growth, they have a developed tertiary hairline and a very wide nose. The color of their skin is lighter than in blacks.
The Bushmen race includes people who spread in the Kalahari desert. Their feature is lighter skin, thin lips, flat face and strong wrinkles of the skin.
Ethiopian race lives in northeast Africa. It occupies an intermediate position between the indoor and non-senior race.
In many countries of the African continent, Europeans born in Africa live. For example, there are quite a few Frenchmen in the north, and in the south the British. The descendants of the Dutch, Germans and some French, who moved to the south of the mainland from Europe in the 17th century, formed their own nationality called the Boers.
Languages of the population of Africa
Residents of Africa speak different languages. Arabic is more common in the northern part. Various languages united in several language families spread south of Sahara. Indo-European languages began to be used due to the era of colonial control. English, Portuguese, French have become official languages in many African countries.
The formation of the population of Africa
Africa, according to many experts in the field of anthropology, is the cradle of mankind. This conclusion is due to the fact that the most ancient remnants of the ancestors of modern man were found on the territory of the continent. In ancient times, an ancient Egypt arose in North-East Africa, which is the oldest state of the planet. Ethiopia was known in the east, and in the west Gana. Throughout human history, the African population has undergone a large number of changes that were due to wars, geographical discoveries, natural cataclysms and social changes.
Today, the population of Africa is divided into indigenous and arrival. The main part is represented by the indigenous population. The period of the colonial past contributed to the reduction of the population. As a result of a long period of the slave trade from Africa, about 100 million people were taken out. Many residents died due to difficult living conditions, diseases and murders.
Population migration and population growth
The dynamics of the population of Africa determines the natural movement. Africa is a area with very high birth rate. In some countries, it reaches 50 ppm, that is, approaches the maximum possible. The average growth is 3 percent per year, which is above all regions of the Earth.
Most of the causes of migration since ancient times had a political, economic or religious character. A significant impact was made by colonization, which influenced the economic and demographic situation. The main directions of migration inside Africa are movements from the village to the village, moving from village to city, moving from city to city.
Migration to other African countries is due to economic reasons. People strive to visit other regions in order to increase the quality of their lives. Also an important reason is education.