The Amazon basin is located the most extensive tropical forest in the world. Its borders spread from the eastern foot of the mountains of the And to the slopes of the Brazilian and Guiana Nagoria. The main part of the forest falls on Brazil, and the rest of the spaces covered the territories of nine states.
Throughout the year in the forests of the Amazon, an equatorial climate prevails, which is extremely monotonous. Almost all year round over the forest, wet and hot air masses concentrate. The average temperature throughout the year is in the range from 25 to 28 degrees Celsius. At night, it does not fall below 20 degrees Celsius. Such weather is poorly tolerated by a person, since relatively small heat due to high humidity and lack of coolness creates the effect of a greenhouse. Day without rain, an extremely rare phenomenon on the territory of the Amazon forest.
Features of the flora
The forest of the Amazon consists of two tiers. The first of which is an ordinary aboveground forest, which consists of trees and impassable shrubs. Second located above the ground, on trees and shrubs: parasites and epiphytes. All these two tiers are intertwined with a variety of vine, which are spreading on the ground, climbing trunks, enveloping branches and ground. The length of one vines can reach 100 meters. Such wild vegetation seriously prevents the possibility of movement. In order to move at a small distance, you need to cut down your path.
We also offer an interesting article on the topic “How the Amazon depends on the climate”
Amazonia in itself amazes the diversity of flora and fauna. The species composition may vary depending on the rivers. Three different types of vegetation are distinguished on the Amazon lowland: forests in river valleys, flooded several times a year, forests in watercutting territories and mangrove thickets.
Subspecies of forests
Forests flooded in the Bioma of the Amazons are called “Igapo”. They are not distinguished by a large species variety of flora and fauna. As a rule, they grow without soil cover and are filled with a muffled silt. Plants equipped with respiratory roots and support roots are often found on this territory. In Igapo, a large number of vines and epiphytes. The water surface is covered with a large number of algae and plants. The most remarkable aquatic plant is to be considered royal Victoria, whose leaves reach 2 meters in diameter and can withstand 50 kilogram weights. The flowers of this plant change their color from white to purple.
Forests located on the high river floodplains of the Amazon basin are called “Varzei”. They are slightly more diverse than Igapo. Most often, palm trees are found on the territory of Varzeya, representatives from the family of mulberry, legumes and merchants. On the lower tiers are varieties of the calculates or chocolate wood. There are many vines, orchids and epiphytes in the forests of Varzeya. Folders and representatives of the Bromelia and Banana families grow in abundance.
The most distinguishing view of the forest of the Amazon basin is the forest “Eta”. They are ranked to the richest forest by type of land vegetation. In them, dominant trees, which make up the main part of the fauna. The abundance of various types of vegetation is extremely large, but the number of plants of each species is considered to be insignificant. Characteristic trees located on the upper tiers are Bertletti, Seiba, palm trees and various species of laurel, myrtle, distinct and legumes. Creeping plants with thick stems are also widespread. Fern in the forests of this reach several meters of height, and the grassy cover is represented by various cereals.
The eastern zone of the Amazon has a subequatorial climate. On the territory of the watershed there are deciduous trees, the areas of the Rylesia and Savann.
Amazon forests on the map
Amazon forests are considered to be the lungs of our planet, since plants produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Amazons accounts for about 50 percent of the Earth’s oxygen. The extermination of these forests is fraught with irreversible consequences for the whole life on the planet.
In the early 1960s, the ubiquitous uncontrolled deforestation of the Amazon forest. Both shores of the Amazon, between the mouth and the city of Manaus, were devastated. Until a certain point, thick tropical forests spread along the coast of Brazil. To date, only 7 percent remained from them.
The government put a ban on the export of wood from the Amazon, but the level of the cutoff was slightly decreased. Quite often, poachers who illegally cut wood and fuse it along rivers in seaports, from where it already reaches consumers is engaged in this. Often forests are burned out with the aim of their use for agricultural purposes. When cutting even one species of plants, the general ecosystem of the region suffers greatly.
To date, the forces of many states are aimed at restoring forests on the Amazons. They are trying to revive them with the help of artificial plantings, however, they contain only a small part of the original species diversity of the flora.
Trombeta was completely destroyed on the territory of the Trombeth River, as a result of which the region turned into a desert. At the moment, it is used as an industrial zone, which houses the world’s largest bauxite development center. Quite often cut down tropical forest turns into new sugar, since frequent rains quickly wash the fertile layer of the soil, and the sun and wind completely dry it out.
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