The northernmost natural zone of the planet is the Arctic desert, which is located in the latitudes of the Arctic. The territory here is almost completely covered with glaciers and snow, sometimes there are fragments of stones. Winter reigns here most of the time with frosts of50 degrees Celsius and below. There is no change of seasons, although during the polar day there is a short summer, and the temperature during this period reaches zero degrees without rising above this value. In summer it can rain with snow, there are thick fogs. There is also a very poor flora.
Due to such weather conditions, animals of the Arctic latitudes have a high level of adaptation to this environment, so they are able to survive in harsh climatic conditions.
What birds live in the arctic deserts?
Birds are the most numerous representatives of the fauna that live in the Arctic desert zone. There are large populations of pink gulls and guillemots that feel comfortable in the Arctic. There is also a northern duck common eider. The largest bird is the northern owl, which preys not only on other birds, but on small animals and cubs of large animals.
What animals can be found in the Arctic?
Among cetaceans in the Arctic desert zone, there is a narwhal, which has a long horn, and its relative, the bowhead whale. There are also populations of polar dolphins beluga, large animals that feed on fish. Killer whales are also found in the Arctic deserts, preying on various northern animals.
Numerous populations of seals in the Arctic desert, including harp seals, mobile ringed seals, large sea hares seals, 2.5 meters tall. Even in the expanses of the Arctic, you can meet walruses predators that prey on animals of smaller dimensions.
Polar bears live among land animals in the Arctic desert zone. In this area, they hunt well both on land and in water, as they dive and swim well, which allows them to feed on marine animals.
Another harsh predator is an Arctic wolf that is not found in this area in this area, but lives in a pack.
Such a small animal lives here as an ordinary arctic fox, which has to move a lot. Lemmings can be found among rodents. And, of course, there are large populations of reindeer.
Adaptation of animals to the arctic climate
All of the above species of animals and birds have adapted to life in the Arctic climate. They have developed special adaptive abilities. The main problem here is the preservation of heat, therefore, in order to survive, animals must regulate their temperature. Bears and arctic foxes have thick fur for this. It protects animals from severe frost. Polar birds have plumage that is loose and tight to the body. In seals and some marine animals, a fatty layer forms inside the body, which protects from the cold. The defense mechanisms of animals are especially active with the approach of winter, when frosts reach an absolute minimum. To protect themselves from predators, some representatives of the fauna change the color of their fur. This allows some species of the animal world to hide from enemies, and others to successfully hunt in order to feed their offspring.
The most amazing inhabitants of the Arctic
According to many people, the most amazing animal of the Arctic is Narval. This is a huge mammal that weighs 1.5 tons. Its length reaches up to 5 meters. This animal has a long horn in the mouth, but in fact it is a tooth that does not play any role in life.
In the reservoirs of the Arctic there is a polar dolphin Beluga. It eats only fish. Here you can also find a killer whale, which is a dangerous predator that does not neglect either fish or larger marine inhabitants. The Arctic desert zone is inhabited by seals. Their limbs are flippers. If on land they look clumsy, then in the water the fins help the animals to swim maneuverably at high speed, hiding from enemies. Seal relatives walruses. They also live on land and in water.
The nature of the Arctic is amazing, but due to the harsh climatic conditions, not all people want to join this world.