The Stavropol Territory belongs to the center of the Caucasus, its borders pass through the Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region, Kalmykia, Dagestan, North Ossetia, as well as through the Chechen, Karachay-Cherkess Republics.
This territory is famous for its natural attractions beautiful valleys, clean rivers, mountain ranges, healing springs. Everyone knows the healing properties of the Caucasian mineral waters and mud from the sources of Lake Tambukan. The undoubted pearl of the region is the city of Kislovodsk and Essentuki, it is from the sources that are in this territory, they produce water Narzan and Esentuki, known for its healing effect.
At the foot of the Caucasian mountains, there are centers of a ski resort, which tourists from all over the world gather. And the snow cap of Elbrus turned into a business card of avid climbers.
In this area, you can not only relax, but also conduct scientific research, since the edge is rich in plant flora, animal fauna. In this area it is convenient to relax, hunt, fish.
Features of the edge
The climatic conditions of the terrain are favorable, spring occurs in March and lasts until the end of May, the average temperature during this period is +15 degrees and frequent rains are observed. Summers are warm with drought, there is little rainfall, and the temperature can reach +40 degrees, but given that there are a large number of forests, plantations, lakes and rivers in the region, this is not very noticeable.
Autumn comes in September-October and is characterized by heavy rains, but in November the first snow falls. Winter is not stable, the temperature can fluctuate from +15 to25 degrees.
The nature of Stavropol is rich in mountain peaks (Strizhament, Nedremann, Beshtau, Mashuk), steppe and semi-deserts (in the northeast), as well as meadows, forest-steppes and deciduous forests.
In the semi-deserts, black and white wormwood, ephedra, wheatgrass, prickly calves grow, in spring the area comes to life everywhere, tulips, pale lilac crocuses and hyacinths are visible.
The eastern part of the region is characterized by the presence of wormwood-cereal and wormwood-fescue dry steppes.
The west and northwest replaces the semi-desert with fertile lands with plowed and untouched steppes, plantings of rural gardens. Of the herbs, it is common here: feather grass, fescue, wild strawberries, meadowsweet, forest forget-me-not, yarrow, purple-red peony, many shrubs.
Forests in the Stavropol Territory are spread on the Vorovskolesky and Darya heights, in the Pyatigorye mountains, on the Dzhinalsky ridge, in valleys and gullies in the southwest, in the regions of the Kuban, Kuma, Kura rivers. These are mainly broad-leaved and oak-hornbeam, fir, maple forests, as well as beech, ash and linden forests.
The largest rivers are Kuban, Terek, Kuma, Kalaus and Yegorlyk, besides them there are about 40 small and large lakes.
The fauna of the region has more than 400 different species, these include predators, herbivores, artiodactyls, insectivores.
Wild boars are formidable inhabitants of the forest, they are large in size and have large fangs, they are among the objects of hunting.
Brown bears are listed in the Red Book. This is a very strong animal with a powerful body and thick hair, its life expectancy is 35 years, and its weight is about 100 kg in spring, before winter the weight increases by 20%. They prefer to live in dense forests and swampy areas.
The jerboa is found in the forest-steppe and in the semi-desert, very fast animals, their speed can reach 5 km per hour, they move on their hind legs.
Animals of the steppes and semi-deserts
In the steppe and semi-desert there are:
The saiga antelope (saiga) is on the verge of extinction; this artiodactyl animal prefers to settle in the steppes and semi-desert. A small mammal with a trunk-shaped nose and rounded ears. Horns are found only in males, which are significantly larger than females.
Sand Corsac Fox
The sand fox-korsak is adjacent to the Canine family, it is smaller than an ordinary fox and has a short, sharp muzzle, large ears and long limbs, 30 cm tall, and weighing up to 6 kg. Prefers steppe and semi-desert.
The sand badger lives in dry areas not far from water bodies, is nocturnal. omnivorous.
Eared hedgehog, a representative of this species is not numerous, they look like an ordinary hedgehog, only with very large ears, they are nocturnal.
The comb and midday gerbil belongs to the species of rodents and has a golden-red (midday) and brownish-gray (comb) coloring.
Even during the Soviet Union, such species of animals as:
Nutria refers to rodents, reaches a length of up to 60 cm and weight up to 12 kg, the largest weight in males. Has a thick wool and a bald tail, which during swimming performs the function of the steering wheel. The animal sets down near reservoirs, does not like cold, but is able to endure frosts at35 degrees.
Raccoon dog is an omnivorous predator. The animal is like a cross of raccoon (color) and fox (structure), lives in holes.
Altai squirrel, it is much larger than ordinary protein and has a black-brown, bright black with a blue tint. In winter, the fur brightens and acquires a silver-gray tone. Lives in coniferous broadleaved forests.
The Altai marg has a long hair of sandy-yellow colors with an admixture of black or black and brown, can reach 9 kg.
Spotted deer, in summer it has a reddish-brown color with white spots, in winter the color fades. Lives in the wild no more than 14 years. The animal lives in deciduous forests, prefers oak plantations.
Roe deer belongs to the genus Deer, in summer it is dark red in color, and in winter it is gray-brown. Refers to permitted objects of hunting.
In the Stavropol Territory there are extensive hunting grounds where you can hunt wild boars, muskrat, pheasant. It is possible to purchase a license in hunting farms for waterfowl, wolves, foxes, martens, hare and ground squirrels.
Caucasian jungle cat
Caucasian reed cat the animal has a medium size, long paws and a short tail. Only a few survived.
Caucasian forest cat
The Caucasian Forest Cat belongs to the Felidae family and is very similar to a domestic cat, only with larger sizes. The color of the animal is gray-red with a yellow tint, clear stripes are observed on the back and sides.
The steppe polecat is on the verge of extinction, due to the reduction of the steppe zone and trapping for valuable fur.
The Gadauri snow vole resembles a hamster in its appearance, it prefers housing in rocky terrain or in thickets of shrubs, it is listed in the Red Book.
To prevent the extinction of some species of animals and birds, 16 state-approved reserves have been organized in this area. In addition to the species presented, mink, several species of bats, hamsters, and mole rats are also protected.
Amphibians and reptiles
Consider small individuals that are under protection, their capture is prohibited.
The Caucasian toad is the largest amphibian in Eurasia, the body length of the female can reach 13 cm.
Asia Minor frog
Asia Minor frog, it is a rare species of animal.
Lanza’s newt lives in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests.
The number of reptiles includes lizards, snakes, sand boas, snake and viper, which is listed in the Red Book.
Of the birds, you can most often encounter such representatives:
Bustard a large bird, found in the steppe, belongs to the Cranes order, reaches a size of up to 16 kg (male) and has a variegated color (red, black, gray, white).
The little bustard does not exceed the size of an ordinary chicken, it looks like a partridge. The upper body is sandy with a dark pattern and the underparts are white.
The demoiselle crane is the smallest representative of the Cranes, its height is 89 cm, and its weight is up to 3 kg. The head and neck are black, in the area of the beak and eyes there are patches of light gray feathers, the beak is short yellowish.
Large feathered predators include:
Imperial Eagle, it belongs to the largest representatives of birds, body length up to 80 cm, wingspan up to 215 cm, weight about 4.5 kg. Females are much larger than males. The coloration is dark brown, almost black with snow-white spots on the wings and a brown-gray tail.
The long-legged eagle, unlike the eagle, has a reddish plumage, they adhere to the steppe, forest-steppe and desert.
In the mountains they prefer to settle:
The mountain turkey is a relative of the pheasant, like a cross between a domestic chicken and a partridge.
caucasian black grouse
The Caucasian black grouse is listed in the Red Book. The bird is black with blue patches, white plumage on the tail and wings, and red eyebrows.
The bearded eagle is a scavenger vulture, with plumage on the head and neck, sharp wings with a wedge-shaped tail.
Griffon vulture belongs to the hawk family, is a scavenger.
In total, more than 400 species of birds live in forests, mountains and plains.
Forests occupy a large area of the entire region, about 12,441 hectares. In the suburbs, not far from water bodies, near the mountains grow:
Oaks belong to the Bukoki family, are a means of survival for many animals: deer, wild boars, protein.
Books are deciduous trees, a very branched variety, you can encounter both in the city and in mountain hills.
Maples reach 40 meters high, belongs to deciduous plants, grows very quickly.
A stingy have opposite and unequal leaves, the height of the barrel reaches 35 m and thickness up to 1 meter.
Rabba belongs to the Birch family, has very slow growth and prefers lime loose soil, poorly tolerate diseases, a very whimsical plant.
Wild apple tree
Wild apple trees have the appearance of a bush or small tree with small fruits.
Cheraking small plum is very similar to cherry, yellow fruits sometimes with reddish sides.
About 150 years ago, the Stavropol Territory was mostly covered with beech forests, but now forests are observed in those areas where there are appropriate climatic conditions with a normal level of humidity.