Ants represent an extensive class of insects such as arthropods and a webbing detachment. In their organization, they are a group of public insects, which have a clear division into three castes: working ants, females and males.
Types of ants
Today, about 13 thousand types of ants are well known, of which about 300 varieties are located in Eurasia. Classifying these insects is quite problematic, since there are a large number of species-two and various hybrids that practically do not differ in appearance. Consider the main types of ants:
Black garden ant
This representative is also called black lasius. It spread widely on the territory of Portugal, Britain and the middle lane of Eurasia. The working individuals of these ants are able to reach the length of the body of about 4.5 millimeters, and females can have a length of 11 millimeters. Their body is painted with dark brown or black small hairs. They prefer to equip their nests in the ground or under the dead wood. They feed mainly with the pad, which the aphid is highlighted. As a result, these insects are pests, as they bred and guard the aphid, which causes great harm to agricultural land. The fact that the uterus of this ant is capable of living up to 30 years is noteworthy.
This type of ants spread widely in Europe, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Females are painted in a reddish tint and reach a length of up to 6 millimeters, and males a predominant black color with a body length up to 5 millimeters. They will equip their nests under stones or dumped trees.
Small forest ant
This species spread widely on the territory of forests with a temperate climate. They are found in various areas from North Eurasia to Eurasia, Sweden and Germany. The size of these insects varies from 7 to 14 millimeters in length. Their bodies are painted red-brown with a dark abdomen. The anthill of these insects reaches a height of 2 meters and is represented by a cluster of branches and needles. At the moment, this type of ants is disappearing and is listed on the pages of the Red Book of most European countries.
This ant has received this name due to the fact that it is endemic Egypt. Their colonies with low speed settled on almost all continents. Working insects are painted yellow and reach a length of not more than 2 millimeters. Males differ from females by the presence of wings and black body color. They can reach a length of up to 3.5 millimeters. Females, in turn, reach a body length of about 4.5 millimeters and are painted with yellow-brown color. Young females of ants have wings, but after mating, working ants bites their wings. These ants are found in dark and moist places, equipping anthills within the same residential structure.
Dinoporer is giant
This representative received separate fame thanks to his gigantic size. Individuals of this species are able to reach about 33 millimeters of body length. Their trunk is painted black. Males are distinguished by the presence of wings, and there is no uterus of this species at all. Instead, working individuals are used females. These large ants are found only in wet forests and savannahs of South America. They equip their dwelling at a depth of about 40 centimeters.
These species differ in their bright green body color with a red-orange abdomen and beige limbs. Adults reach body length up to 8 millimeters, and males can reach 10 millimeters of length. Ants-porty are built on trees, fastening the leaves with their discharge. They are found in the territories of Australia, Thailand, Vietnam and Bangladesh. One colony can contain about 1.5 million representatives.
This type of ant is disappearing and is in the Red Book. He lives on the territory of the Far Eastern range of Eurasia. Workers can reach the body length up to 6 millimeters, and males and females can reach 12 millimeters. Their dens are equipped in wood bark of pines, fir, lip and birch.
He has become separate in European countries, as well as on the middle lane of Eurasia, China and Mongolia. Working ants reach a body length of about 8 millimeters. Their body is painted black with an orange head. The uterus of blood-red ants reaches 10 millimeter body length and has a red head with orange breasts. These ants equip these summer nests on rotten stumps, as well as in the ground or under the stones. In winter they change the nests on the fact that they are near the base of the trees. They also differ in that they can arrange robberies for other anthills. They use captured dolls as “slaves”.
The yellow ant amazon
These ants differ quite large sizes. Females are able to reach a body length of about 1 centimeter, and males, in turn, do not exceed 0.75 centimeters of length. Working ants no more than 0.7 centimeters. As a rule, all females and working ants are painted in red-yellow shades, and their body is covered with small black hairs. Males are completely black with brown antenaries. These insects are found in European countries, as well as in Asia and the Western of Siberia. As a range, yellow amazons prefer wet forests, and they will equip their nests in clearings and edges. They tend to abduct other types of ants and use them as an additional labor force.
This species represents the subfamily of nomadic ants, which are found exclusively in tropics and subtropics. Most often they are found in the territories of South and Central America, as well as in Africa. Exist in large groups, of which the largest percentage falls on working ants. This is a rather voracious look that eats everything that comes across in the way. Despite the small size that fluctuate in the range from 2 to 4 millimeters, this species differs in a huge number. They exterminate a large number of cultural plants, eating their juices.
The territory of distribution
Ants are an extremely numerous type of insects that spread on almost all continents and adapted to various climatic zones. The exception is the harsh Arctic and Antarctica, as well as the cold islands of Iceland and Greenland. For many ants, it is common to fall into long hibernation from the moment of the cold.
As dwellings, insects equip themselves with anthills, which are built on rotten wood, soil or small stones. Some ants are able to capture the nests of other insects, as well as settle down near human dwellings.
The diet of ants is quite diverse, but largely depends on the type. As a rule, they use vegetation and animal residues in food. Ants eat several times a day.
As a protein food that serves as a building material for the development of larvae, dead insects, as well as the remains of animals and trophic eggs are used. Larvae of home ants prefer dairy products, egg dishes and gelatin. For the uterus, protein foods are needed, which should chew the caring ants.
Ants use a copper dew as carbohydrates. It is a juice of leaves that stands out during temperature fluctuations. In addition, in their diet there is a pad selection of insects, in particular, aphids. Ants tend to grow aphids for their goals. They graze it, grow and protect it from other ants. Then they are milk and consume the resulting milk.
In addition, ants feed on various seeds and roots of plants, nuts and mushrooms. These insects are notable for the fact that they stock up about 1 kilogram of raw materials for the winter. For example, anti-leaf toss ants bring foliage to their anthills, which is then chewed and stored in specially equipped chambers. After that, mushrooms begin to grow from this foliage, which ants are then used for food.
Propagation of ants
Ants propagate in two ways. This happens no more than twice a year. The first way is that the young uterus with a certain number of working ants is separated from the whole society and arranges a separate anthill. The second method uses a wedding flight when the female ant is fertilized by males from another anthill. After directly fertilization, it lays eggs from which working individuals are born into light. Males most often die through a certain time period.
In the period before the offspring, the female feeds only with nutrients from the remnants of the muscles of the wings. Females appear from fertilized eggs, and males from unexplored.
Life cycle of ants
Ants are able to settle in wellheated places. For example, in apartments they prefer to equip in kitchens and bathrooms. They can be under parquet, tile, plinth and in various cracks.
Ants can be dangerous when they crawl along rotten food remnants and other sewage, while falling into food. They are capable of transmitting such dangerous diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid and many others. Ants are able to ruin any food. It is quite problematic to fight them, since they place their nests secretly, and the use of poisons can be ineffective. To combat the colonies of ants, the lure method works best.
Features of lifestyle
The body of ants is represented by a step head and a large back. They are also endowed with tentacles, which are represented from the tips and a long segment. A distinctive feature of their lifestyle is the organization of the social structure. Only an ant Korolev can lay eggs. Males, in turn, are engaged only in the fact that they fertilize the queen, and then die. Communication between ants occurs through pheromones. The path to the source of food is marked by the aroma of the legs, which is formed due to the special gland and contains data on the place and quality of the source. Liquid food is transported to an anthill in social stomachs, and a solid one entirely or in pieces.