Penguin Adelie (Lat. Pygoscelis Adeliae) is one of the most popular penguins in the Penguinshaped detachment.
Aqueli Penguin got its name thanks to the name of the wife of the navigator and researcher of the Frenchman Demo-Durville, whose expedition at the end of the 19th century (and, more precisely, in 1840), Adeli (located in Antarctica) opened the land, where he met a huge number of these penguins. And the birds received such an unusual name from the light hand of the naturalists Ombron and Zhakino, who were just in this famous expedition and studied these birds.
Adelie’s penguins and their population make up most (to be precise twothirds) from all birds that can be found in Antarctica. Every year, this species of birds overcomes at least 80 kilometers, walking around the ice desert for a month, and everything with the aim of getting to the common colonies-nestadium, where you can meet at the same time a little less than a million birds.
Interestingly, during the nesting period, Penguin chooses a female, and offers her a kind of gift in the form of a pebble. This female becomes his permanent companion for life (and its duration in this species is about 12 years). These penguins send their babies to peculiar nurses.
Adeli’s penguin is not the largest type among penguins: its dimensions are average, and the height does not exceed about 75 cm, and the average weight ranges about 6 kg. Sexual dimorphism in these birds is not particularly noticeable, except that females are much smaller than males. Head, neck, back and fins of a penguin have a black color with a bluish metal tint, but the chest and stomach are white. White is a characteristic ring around the eyes.
In winter, this bird often goes to the ocean, overcoming thousands of kilometers from the habitat for prey. Their streamlined shape and an almost imperceptible short neck help them feel great in water: here penguins quite often make jumping similar to dolphin, and from afar it is really easy to take for these mammals. The presence of fluff and a thick layer of subcutaneous fat allows the body of a bird not to hypothermia.
Where it lives
Adeli’s penguins chose the coast of the Antarctic and the nearest islands for the nesting place, but extremely rarely appear north of 60 degrees southern latitude. Usually they hold near the packs of ice, where open water guarantees them a more acceptable temperature. On land, birds appear exclusively during nesting, and even then they unite in huge colonies, settling on the accessible rocky coasts of the ocean.
The main diet of these penguins is Kril, they respect small fish and cephalopods (as well as mollusks of other species) a little less. The penguin finds the main part of his nutrition in the sea element, and their features allow the optimal way to process the energy that the bird receives from food. Surprisingly, throughout the day, Penguin consumes only about two kilograms of food.
Adeli penguins nest only at a certain time due to the harsh climate of the environment, and appear on the territory of nesting at the end of the polar night.
Males arrive first, and females reach somewhere in a week. Having appeared on the spot, the couple begins to build a nest. Typically, the preparation of the nest starts at the end of October (it is then that spring begins in the Antarctic). Nests are usually arranged on the surface of the coast free from ice. The formation of the nest depends on the age of the birds: the young lay only a few pebbles, and adults form a whole bowl of stones.
Penguins nest in colonies from various age groups, so there is often a lot of noise during nests, and some birds do not even disdain building building material from neighbors. At the heart of such a colony, you can usually meet birds that have been nesting more than once, whose age is up to about five years.
In November-December, the female lays two eggs with some break, and then goes to the feeding, and their father will conscientiously hatch their first weeks without eating. After a couple of weeks, the female joins the process. After hatching of the chicks (around mid-January) and their growing, the penguins hand them over to the nursery (somewhere at the age of about four weeks), going to hunt. In such groups, chicks are up to two months. After the nesting period ends, adult penguins pass the molting period, and then, along with grown chicks, go to the sea.
From about March to October, birds wander in the ocean, overcoming hundreds of kilometers. At sea, they prefer to hold on small flocks up to 10 individuals. And in the winter, most of the time the penguins are on ice floes, and the search for food is only a couple of hours a day.
The main natural enemies of birds of this species can be considered:
Interestingly, these penguins are ideal indicators showing climate change. These birds are gradually populated by those beaches that have recently been covered with eternal ice, and this shows the degree of warming in Antarctic.
The colonies of these birds are an interesting goal for ecotourism, and more recently they were used as food and source of oil; their bowel movements served as excellent fertilizer.
The number of Penguins of Adelie Penguins is quite impressive and is approximately 2.5 million pairs (this is almost 4.75 million individuals). Studies conducted in relation to this population showed that the number of these penguins is characterized by stability or even an increase in indicators. But due to the fact that the development trends of the population of these birds directly depend on climatic conditions and sea ice, many scientists express concerns that the process of global warming can have a significant negative impact on their number.
This is primarily due to the fact that the existence of penguins is closely connected with the sea, and depends on annual fluctuations, as well as the structure of sea ice. This is brightly illustrated by bird nutrition area, they are determined by the maximum distances of ice.
Alerts are related to Aquin Adeli: several interesting facts are associated: