Arctic deserts of North America animals and plants, soil, climate, geographical location

Scarbon vegetation, glaciers and snow the main characteristics of the Arctic desert. Extraordinary terrain spreads in the territories of the northern outskirts of Asia and North America. Funned regions are also found on the islands of the Arctic basin, which are located in the field of the polar geographical belt. The territory of the Arctic desert is mainly covered with fragments of stones and gravel.


The snow desert is located within the high latitude of the Arctic. It occupies a large area and extends thousands of kilometers of ice and snow. The unfavorable climate caused the poor plant world and, as a result, there are also very few representatives of the fauna. Few animals are able to adapt to low temperatures, which in winter reach60 degrees. In summer, the situation is much better, but degrees do not rise above +3. Atmospheric precipitation falling in the Arctic desert does not exceed 400 mm. In the warm season, the ice barely thaws, and the soil is soaked through with snow layers.

The harsh climate makes it impossible to live many animal species in these regions. The cover, consisting of snow and ice, lasts for all twelve months. The polar night is considered the hardest period in the desert. It can last about six months. At this time, there is a decrease in temperature on average to40 degrees, as well as constant hurricane winds, strong storms. Despite the lighting in the summer, the soil cannot be thawed, since there is very little heat. This period of the year is characterized by cloudiness, rain with snow, thick fog and temperature indicators within 0 degrees.

Animal deserts

In the zone of Arctic deserts of North America, the minimum number of animals live. This is due to poor vegetation, which can become a source of food for representatives of the fauna. Among the vivid representatives of the animal world, seals, Arctic wolves, lemmings, walruses, seals, white bears and northern deer are distinguished.


Arctic wolf




Polar bear


Polar owls, sheeps, kaira, arctic gulls, gaga and dead ends are also adapted to difficult climatic conditions. For a group of whaling (Narvals, Greenland whales, polar dolphins/belugas), the Arctic deserts are also acceptable living conditions for living.


Dead end

Greenland whale

Among the small number of animals living in the Arctic deserts of North America, birds are considered the most common. A bright representative is a pink gull growing up to 35 cm. The weight of birds reaches 250 g, they easily tolerate the harsh winter and live above the surface of the sea covered with drifting glaciers.

Pink Seagull

Kaira prefer to live on sheer high rocks and do not experience discomfort, being among the ice.

The northern ducks (Gaga) are excellently diving into ice water to a depth of 20 m. The largest and ferocious bird is considered to be a polar owl. This is a predator that ruthlessly kills rodents, cubs of animals and other birds.

Plants of ice deserts

The main representatives of the plant world of glacial deserts are mosses, lichens, grassy plants (cereals, sowing). Sometimes in harsh conditions you can find an alpine fox, an arctic pike, buttercup, a stone, polar poppy and a variety of mushrooms, berries (cranberries, lingonberries, cloudberries).

Lisochrosost alpine

Arctic pike


The stone is snowy

Polar poppy




In total, the Flora of the Arctic deserts of North America is no more than 350 species of plants. Harsh conditions impede the soilforming process, since even in summer the earth does not have time to thaw. Also, algae, which are about 150 species, are distinguished in a separate group.

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