A large evergreen tree of Ayanskaya grows in the wild up to 60 m, but, as a rule, much shorter (up to 35 m) when a person is growing in landscape parks. The homeland of the spruce mountains of central Japan, mountain boundaries of China with North Korea and Siberia. Trees on average grow by 40 cm per year. An increase in girth occurs faster, usually 4 cm per year.
Ayan spruce is hardy, frostresistant (the limit of frost resistance from40 to45 ° C). The needles do not fall all year round, blooms from May to June, cones ripen in September-October. This type of oneday (separate color is male or female, but both sexes grow on the same plant), pollinated by the wind.
Spruce is suitable for growing on light (sand), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and grows on nourishing poor soil. Suitable pH: sour and neutral soils, does not disappear on very sour soils.
Ayanskaya spruce does not grow in the shade. Prefers moist soil. The plant tolerates strong, but not sea winds. Dies when the atmosphere is polluted.
Description of the spruce of Ayanskaya
The diameter of the barrel at the chest level is up to 100 cm. The bark is grayish-brown, deeply crackled and exfoliates with scales. The branches are pale yellowish-brown and smooth. Leaf pads have a length of 0.5 mm. The needles are leather, linear, flat, slightly mowed on both surfaces, 15-25 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, pointed, with two white stomach stripes on the upper surface.
Semenny cones are single, cylindrical, brown, 4-7 cm long, 2 cm across. Seeds of seeds are ovate or oblong-ovate, with a dumb or rounded peak, slightly toothed on the upper edge, 10 mm long, 6-7 mm wide. Bracts under the scales of cones are small, narrow ovoid, sharp, weakly gearing on the upper edge, 3 mm long. Seeds are ovate, brown, 2-2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; The wings are oblong-ovate, pale brown, 5-6 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide.
Distribution and ecology ate Ayanskaya
There are two geographical subspecies of this unusual spruce, which some authors consider as varieties, and others as individual species:
Picea jezoensis jezoensis is more common in the entire area.
Picea Jezoensis Hondoensis is rare, grows an isolated population in high mountains in the central part of Honsey.
Ayan spruce from Japan, grows in Subalpian forests on southern Kurils, Honshu and Hokkaido. In China, it grows in the province of Haylunjiang. In Eurasia, it is found in the Ussuri Territory, on Sakhalin, Kuril Islands and Central Kamchatka, northeast from the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk to Magadan.
Use of spruce in industry
In the Russian Far East and North Japan, Ayan spruce is used for the production of wood and paper. The wood is soft, light, elastic, flexible. Used for interior decoration, furniture, in the construction and manufacture of wood-based plates. Many trees are often cut off illegally from untouched natural forests. Ayanskaya spruce is a rare appearance, included in the Red Book.
Use in folk medicine and gastronomy
Edible parts: color, seeds, resin, inner bark.
Young men’s inflorescences eat raw or boiled. Immature female cones are prepared, the central part when frying is sweet and thick. The inner bark is dried, crushed into powder and then used as a thickener in soups or added to flour when cooking bread. From the tips of young shoots, they make refreshing tea rich in vitamin C.
Smole from the trunk of Ayan spruce is used for medicinal purposes. Tannin is obtained from the bark, essential oil from leaves.