Azonal natural complexes examples and formation factors

Geographical zonality in geography is usually called the natural development of a system of natural complexes from the equator to the poles, which is primarily characterized by an uneven distribution of solar energy at these latitudes which is associated with the spherical structure of the planet’s surface.

What is the zoning of a natural complex

In geography, the name natural complex was given to territories within whose boundaries there is a regular combination of correlated components from relief, climate to vegetation and other points.

Such natural complexes are customary to be divided into two large categories:

  • Zonal, the appearance of which is determined, for the most part, by climatic factors, where the moisture regime, temperature factors, the nature of the weathering, and t are important.e. Natural zones.
  • The components of the earth’s surface, which differ in similar conditions-from soil-lowering to climatic.

    Geographical zonality is usually manifested by features of highaltitude span a logical transformation of mountain natural complexes from foot to the top, which, in turn, concerns the evolution of temperatures and rainfalls.

    And the territories of our country can be found an extensive variety of natural zones of both Arctic and moderate belts: these are Arctic deserts, and tundra with foresttundra, and, of course, forest zones with foreststeppes and steppe landscapes, including semideserts and deserts.

    The considerable extent of the territory of our country and a large number of plains of a significant area clearly predetermined the distribution of natural zones within its borders. This can be observed especially clearly on the territory of the plains East European and West Siberian.

  • Azonal, the formation of which is associated with the relief of the territory: such processes include the angle of inclination, the composition of rocks, the direction of movement of the earth’s surface).
  • Unlike the zonal distribution of natural complexes, azonal territories are in no way connected with the accepted delimitation of the planet according to the latitudinal principle. Such zones were formed based on the formation of the earth’s crust and its usual relief. The largest of the azonal complexes are considered to be the continents and oceans, since they are distinguished by the structure and histories in the geological sense. In turn, these azonal complexes are divided into natural countries, much less voluminous in size.

    Factors of formation of azonal natural complexes

    Conventionally, scientists divide all natural zones into two main types: those that are formed as a result of regular rules of change, and those that are formed in opposition to such a pattern due to differences in structure and relief.

    Such azonal complexes develop under the influence of local criteria, not zonal ones: relief, rocks and the structure of the Earth’s crust.

    Azonal natural complexes examples and factors of formation

    And some researchers even mean by such criteria several bright patterns regarding the geographical shell:

  • Consistent transformations of the processes of the physical and geographical direction, components and complexes, starting from the coasts towards the central regions of the continents (peculiar meridial zonality);
  • Reforming the structural properties of landscapes associated with a gypsometric gradient (peculiar vertical zoning).
  • In accordance with the characteristics of local conditions (relief, moisture, altitude), such azonal complexes can be distinguished, such as, for example, floodplain meadows or oases in the desert.

    Examples of Azonal Natural Complexes

    If we talk about the most significant natural complexes with signs of azonal formation, these are, first of all, continents and oceans, which, in turn, are divided into plain and mountainous territories within the boundaries of the continents (Caucasus, Himalayas, West Siberian Plain), and they are already The objects and complexes (northern, southern Andes) are divided into even less significant in volume, up to hills, slopes and river valleys.

    The difference between zonal complexes and azonal

    Natural complexes develop both in the conditions of land and in the ocean depths, and the local conditions are influenced by local conditions on the creation of Azonal territories and complexes, unlike zonal complexes.

    In addition to continents, mountains and oceans, there are smaller examples of Azonal complexes on land these are hills, lakes, ravines and similar formations. In the World Ocean, such zones can be considered separate seas or territories of bays.

    Such internal factors in the process of formation are completely dependent on the flow of movements in the bowels of the planet, which affect the geological structure of the planet’s relief.

    Such non-zonal factors are the reason for the emergence of azonal complexes, called physiographic countries, which are usually divided precisely according to the geological structure and relief that are closely associated with these formations.

    Azonal natural complexes of Eurasia

    It is customary to refer to the azonal complexes of our country the largest natural territories of the state: the East European Plain, the Urals, the Caucasus and others, each of which includes many complexes of a lower level.


    It is natural zones that are one of the significant components of such a concept as geographical zones: they include significant areas of the earth’s surface that have the same natural components, formed under the influence of a combination of heat and humidity indicators.

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