Bee types, names and description, features, lifestyle, reproduction and nutrition

The bees appeared as a result of natural and artificial selection, which people began during the development of beekeeping and fighting. Due to honey, these insects are the most useful in the household. People of antiquity specially bred bees, and honey used not only food, but also as drugs. Bees live in various corners of the planet and are distinguished by their external signs, stability, productivity and other qualities.

Types of bees

At the moment, about 21 thousand bees are known, which are united in 520 genera. Consider the main ones:

Himalayan bee

They differ from the membranous of their bright yellow-black body coloring. These representatives are most often found in mountainous regions. These insects are noteworthy in that they are quite calm and resistant to ticks. The honey of these bees collects the people of gurungs in Nepal. It is noteworthy that their honey has hallucinogenic properties. This fact is due to the fact that on the territory in which they live, there are a large number of rhododenders. These plants during the flowering period produce Andromedotoxin, which is a strong poison. When it enters the human body, it contributes to the appearance of hallucinations.

Listoresis bee

The appearance of this bee is very similar to ordinary Osami. They have a long body in the range from 8 to 16 millimeters. Differ in the presence of a strong jaw, thanks to which the leaves can cut. Listo Russians feed nectar. You can meet them on the territory of the latitudes, in which a moderate climate prevails. Only 25 plants can pollinate the bee throughout life, since they have a rather short life cycle.

Bashkir bee

This variety of bees is found in European countries. The color of their body has a gray shade without characteristic yellow stripes. These insects were well adapted to various climatic conditions, since they are able to fly out of the hive even in the cold.

Yellow Caucasian bee

These representatives are considered one of the most common rocks and are found in the mountains. They are able to produce highquality honey, but they are extremely poorly tolerated by cold and endowed with poor immunity. About 7 percent of these bees have a swarm instinct.

Gray Caucasian bee

A distinctive feature of this bee is its gray color. There are no yellow stripes throughout the body that are characteristic of most bees. This representative is divided into how subspecies depending on the habitat: Abkhaz, valley, Kakhetinskaya, Imereta and Megrel. Insects of this species do not tolerate movements to the places where the cold climate.

Italian bee

These individuals began to spread on the territory of the Apennine Peninsula. They differ in gray, gold or threelane color. Most often dedicated golden bees. Individuals of this species differ in large sizes and have a trunk length of about 6.5 millimeters. Italian bees themselves are quite peaceful, but aggressive in cases of danger. It is quite difficult for them to dwell on the territory of Eurasia, since they endure the winter with great difficulty.

Asian bees

In Asia, certain types of honey bees spread in Asia. They have a number of characteristic differences. At the moment, they are in the amount of 9,000 species. The main representative is the large bee APIS Dorsata Laboriosa. In addition to large sizes, the abdomen of these individuals is painted dark with white stripes. Between the main pairs of the eyes there is an additional pair. These bees live on sheer cliffs, where he builds his hives. Their bite is very painful.

Ukrainian steppe bee

The bees of the Ukrainian steppe breed are adaptive to serious temperature fluctuations, so they can tolerate wintering well. These bees prefer plants with a high sugar content. About 10% of all bees of this species are prone to growing. They are also distinguished by good fertility and unique cleanliness, which is manifested in the fact that the hives of these bees are not clogged with garbage and wax.

Don bee

This species also has a rather high fertility. Their color is represented by brown stripes. During the period of reproduction, the uterus lays about 3,000 eggs per day. However, representatives of the family are very prone to growing. They feed mainly by the nectars of the Donnik, Oreaches and acacia.

Thai bees

The appearance of these bees is represented by a dark abdomen and the absence of characteristic stripes on the surface. Also the wings of these bees are much darker. Insects themselves are characterized by a calm and high degree of performance. Their honey is famous for a soft and pleasant taste.

Bee Abkhazyanka

You can meet this bee in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus. They prefer to live on sheer cliffs, due to which they are also called stone bees. They are widely used for breeding, due to delicious and unique honey. Cultivate them in the USA and Western Europe. Distinguishes this species incommensurably long trunk.

Bee Melipons

The peculiarity of this type is the absence of a sting. Instead, they actively use their odorous glands. In the case of an attack, the Bee Melipon can use its gums. These individuals are notable for the fact that they do not have a specific division of labor. Their hives have similarities with bumblebees nests. Meliponov honey is widely used on the Yukatan peninsula, since the bees in this region produce the most delicious honey. A very small population survived to this day.

Altai bee

This type of bee is quite rare. They are widely used in Altai to obtain honey, which have a number of useful properties. Also, this type is especially productive and carefully consumes its feed base.

Siberian bee

These bees spread in Siberia, due to which they are rather frostresistant. They are valued due to high resistance to a large number of diseases. Also differ in quite large sizes and a high degree of fertility.

general description

The appearance of the bees is represented by a threepart body: head, chest and abdomen. The entire surface of the body of the bees is covered with small hairs, of which one part serves as a function for touch and is associated with the nervous system. The most sensitive body of the bees are antennae that allow them to navigate in the darkness of their hives. Due to the presence of a moving jaw, bees are able to build large cells from wax, as well as collect pollen from plants and leave the closed cell.

Adult bees reach sizes from 12 to 15 millimeters. Their abdomen is represented by 6 segments on which rather thin and elastic wings with transparent veins are attached. On the head of these insects there are two large ones, and three more small ones are located on the crown, which are used to recognize polarized light, so they can navigate the sun.

In the area of ​​the back of the abdomen is a stinging organ that contains two poisonous glands and a sharp sting with a length of up to two millimeters. The shape of the sting allows you to easily plunge into the skin of an animal or humans. When it gets it, the bee introduces its poison, and then dies.

The bite of about five hundred or thousands of bees can be fatal. Adults can reach very high speed, as well as retire from the hive to 4 kilometers.

The external structure of the bee in the picture

Lifestyle

Bees differ from other insects with their large groups, which are represented by hives with strict hierarchy and division of labor. Representatives of this hierarchy include uterus, drones and working bees. In the society of bees, the main uterus is, and working bees are responsible for ensuring the functioning of the hive. Males serve only to continue the genus. The uterus is responsible exclusively for the reproduction of offspring, and it is also the creator of the whole hive and is engaged in its improvement before the appearance of workers’ bees.

The life expectancy of bees

The life expectancy of bees largely depends on the territory of its distribution and place in the bee hierarchy. Workers’ bees do not live for long. If it was born from spring to summer, then her life expectancy will not exceed one month. This is due to the fact that these bees are constantly working. Workers’ bees that were born in the fall live about six months. As a rule, they experience winter and live until spring to start active work to collect honey and nectar.

Drouts have a shorter life expectancy. On average, it is about 2 weeks. These insects are ready for fertilization almost immediately, and after it die. Drone, who survived, send to die, expelling from the hive.

The uterus leads in life expectancy. The average period of its performance is about 5 years. However, for this, it should be very important in the hierarchy and constantly produce offspring.

Power nutrition

Almost all bees eat pollen and floral nectar. A special proboscis is used to extract it. Through it, nectar enters the goiter, in which it is transformed into honey. In the process of collecting pollen and nectar, the pollination of flowers is of great importance. In search of plants, these insects can fly about 10 kilometers per day.

Bee reproduction

The process of reproduction in bees is carried out by postponing eggs. Fullfledged bees come out of the fertilized eggs. If there was no fertilization directly, then drones are born. In order for the offspring to be viable, the uterus must be fertilized by drones from other families.

The development of the uterus of bees

Bee eggs pass three stages: larva, prediction and doll. If the family has a very large number of bees, then the growth occurs. One part of the bees remains in the hierarchy with the uterus, and the second part is looking for a new place with a new uterus.

Bee of the uterine propagation scheme

The territory of the distribution of bees

You can meet bees almost everywhere, with the exception of places where there are no flowering plants. Bees prefer to populate mountain crevices, hollows of old trees and earthen holes. The main criterion is the protection against the wind and the presence of a liquid near the hive. Often bees can live in the attics of houses or between the walls.

At the moment, the number of bees around the world is rapidly declining. The main reason for such a sharp reduction in populations is still unknown, but most often it is due to human activity to destroy the natural habitat of insects, frequent use of chemicals for fertilizer and change in the climate of the Earth.

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