Birch shed ordinary description of the plant, photos, signs and properties

Sloping birch – The most famous tree in Eurasia. Signs, fairy tales and folk legends are associated with it. This species grows almost everywhere: in personal plots, in forest belts and city. Birch is often used on the farm. For example, bath brooms are made from its branches, and useful decoctions and infusions are prepared from bark and kidneys. The tree differs from other cultures with its unpretentiousness, active development and decorative qualities.

Description

The tree belongs to the genus of the Betulaceae family. In Latin, the name of culture sounds like «Betula Pendula». She has other names: warty, crying. It grows almost everywhere, covering the territory of Europe and North America, Primorsky Alps, Balkan Mountains, Calabria. You can also find the soul of birch in Northern Siberia, the mountains of Altai and the Caucasus.

This culture in mixed forests is mainly germinated. It takes root on the clearings, in the edges and the foreststeppe zone. It is worth noting that the soul is cultivated in parks and squares.

The tree is considered oneday, because it does not have pestle and stamens. Female earrings are formed in the spring, simultaneously with the release of leaves. Male formed in the fall, and grow in bundles of 1-4 pieces. During growth, men’s earring can stretch 2-4 times.

It is interesting to note that the hollow birch contains components that people eat in food. For example, juice. It has a slightly sweet taste. Minute it in early spring, making a hole in the trunk. In addition, the tree has a number of therapeutic properties. Its bark has a laxative and diuretic effect. The kidneys contain up to 5% of essential oil and resin. They have a calming, diuretic and choleretic effect.

Kinds

The genus of birch includes over 40 types. Today, many gardeners use a birch for landscaping garden plots. Thanks to this, new varieties of wood were bred. Several interesting species of dial birch, which are particularly popular, deserve special attention.

«Purpurea»

The highlight of this species lies in the shade of the leaves. They have a dark red color, which in the process of their growth acquires a rich purple hue. In shape, they resemble rhombus. The bark of the tree is quite dark in comparison with other species. She has a black-gray shade. In height, the birch reaches 10 m.

«Royal Frost»

Has a pyramidshaped shape of the crown and smooth, burgundy leaves. In young trees, bronze bark. Over time, it becomes white. This species is quite photophil, but it can take root in the darkened areas. Unpretentious in the choice of soil. It develops well in the soil different in composition, density and acidity.

Youngii

This is a type of birch on the stem. Is a small tree with a crown in the form of an umbrella. Thin branches of birches hang down, reaching to the surface of the earth. In the year Youngii grows up to 100 cm. In standard crops, the height depends on the vaccination. The age of this type can reach 120 years.

Appearance

The birch of a dull is a deciduous tree up to 30 meters high. The diameter of the crown often reaches 15 meters. The branches of this species are hanging. The diameter of the barrel varies within 60-80 cm. Young shoots have a red-brown tint. They are contained glands-beams. Smooth white bark can be exfoliated into thin layers. Closer to the root, the trunk becomes black and gray and rough.

The leaves have an oval-triangular shape, narrowed to the end. The edges are toothed. The foliage of the young tree is sticky and smooth. Its front side has a dark green glossy shade, and the reverse – Green matte. The length of the sheet is 3-6 cm., And the width – 2.5-5 cm.

The main root is overgrown. They develop and become powerful enough to hold a large tree. When the lateral roots are developed, the rod dies.

The kidneys of the whisper of red-brown. They are sticky and have a rather specific smell of resin.

Fruits and seeds

Blooms bloom in April-May. Fruits appear in September. They are elongated oval nuts with two small wings. They are in earrings, which may contain up to 500 pieces of nuts at once. From the end of the end of summer to the middle of winter, the fruits from birch gradually fall off.

In the natural tree, you can get a crop of seeds up to 50 kg per 1 ha. Seed germination is 25 – 60%. In freshly seeded seeds, germination reaches 70 in fruitful years – 80 %. Their quality depends on weather conditions during birch flowering. If the weather is rainy during flowering, many empty seeds are formed.

Characteristic and signs

Sloping birch has the following characteristics:

  • droughtresistant;
  • frostresistant (withstand up to40°C);
  • photophilous;
  • subject to destructive exposure to mushrooms;
  • can grow on light (sand), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils;
  • root is highly developed, upper.

It is interesting to note that the foliage of this tree is used to determine the degree of environmental pollution. This uses a method of fluctuating asymmetry.

Pests begin to appear on a weakened tree – It can be tinder fungi, birch sponge, honey mushrooms, chaga. Moreover, the chaga parasitizes only on living birches. The raids of the caterpillars of silkworms, bugwood beetles, May beetles are usually subjected to leaves.

I am easy to find a birch with a white trunk with black stripes and spreading branches reaching the ground. She easily gets along with other trees, especially coniferous.

Application

Leaves and kidneys have choleretic, diagrams, diuretic, bactericidal, antiseptic and antiinflammatory qualities. Drink solutions and infusions in folk medicine for healing female diseases, liver problems.

In addition to medicines, kidneys and leaves are added to cream and other cosmetics. Birch tar is part of the products from skin, fungal diseases, Extra (Vishnevsky ointment based on a tar).

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