Black Road is a representative of the detachment of the basiaomycetes, the cheeselegged family and the genus Mlechik. This mushroom is called chernushka, black hollow and black. This name is due to the greenish-brown and greenish-black color of the hat.
The appearance of the chernushka is represented by a dimeter hat in the range from 6 to 20 centimeters. Young hats look convex or flat. Hats with a bent edge are found. Under high humidity conditions, the hats are covered with a gluten mucosa. In dry weather, the surface has a felt texture. Color varies from brown to black with green tint.
Black’s leg does not differ in color from the hat. The height of the legs can vary from 3 to 8 centimeters with a thickness of up to 2.5 centimeters. The upper part of the leg is lighter than the lower. She has a narrowed shape and a smooth texture. The young black load has a solid leg, and in old mushrooms hollow or cellular.
The pulp of the mushroom is dense and painted white. When cutting, a grayish tint appears. With a fracture of the pulp, milky juice appears, which differs in bitterness and has no smell. Disputes yellow and wideellipsoidal with a rough surface.
Territory of growth
Most often, chernushka is found in the temperate climatic latitudes of Eurasia and on the territory of North America. Blacks were artificially divorced in Australia and New Zealand. In Eurasia, this mushroom is more common in the European part of the country. However, there are large clearings with Chernushka in the Urals, the Far East and Altai.
Chernushka prefers to grow in spruce and old forests. Can grow in berelniks. It is common for them to form mycorrhizes with birch. Chernushki also grow along the roads, next to the swamps, on moss bumps and cutting. Sometimes found in parks and gardens. Due to their dark color, cherries are perfectly disguised in the grass. In order to find them, you need to be very careful. They can grow both in groups and one by one. The fruiting period begins in midJuly and lasts until the end of November. The largest number of mushrooms is observed in August. When collecting cherries, it must be borne in mind that the fruit bodies of these mushrooms are very brittle.
Most often, young mushrooms are not worm, but their adult representatives are eaten by various insects and their larvae.
Chernushka is attributed to representatives of conditionally sedentary species. It is recommended to eat it after prolonged soaking and salting. Salt transforms the color of the black-red-red color. However, a number of authors believe that Chernushka should not be eaten due to the high concentration of such a substance in it as a non-catholicum, which is a strong mutag-tagsogean. About 30 milligrams of Necatorine accounts for 100 grams of chernushki. In recent experiments, the mutagenic properties of this substance on bacteria have been proved. Carcinogenic effects were investigated on the liver cells of pigs.
But other studies question confirming the confirmation of the above properties of black. Mushroom pickers should be wary of eating these mushrooms for food. On the territory of Western Europe, Chernushka is listed in the lists of poisonous mushrooms.
In nature, a black load did without similar poisonous mushrooms. However, quite often it can be confused with edible views. It has a resemblance to mushrooms such as:
Black loads (or black raw)
You can quickly distinguish this mushroom from the chernushka by its abundant and bitter juice. A hat of young mushrooms of black raw damps is painted in a whitish-gray color and has a flat-convex shape. While the black hat has much darker and does not have brightly exposed gray tones. There are small gray points on the hat with a hat that has no chernushki.
The plates of the black rahs are completely white, and in elderly mushrooms they become gray. Young loads have a yellowish tint. Also, the pulp of the black subgr would be painted with gray, which is converted into red during breakdown of the mushroom. The pulp of black coarse has an earthy smell and a sweet taste. Another inconspicuous difference lies in the color of the spore powder: it is white at the subgr would, and in Chernushka it is yellow.
The load is real
You can meet this mushroom on the territory of mountain forests. It has a number of similarities with chernushka, however, a significant difference lies in the bright color and the presence of concentric circles on the hat.
The usefulness of blacks is the subject of a dispute of many people. Food value is greatly inferior to other mushrooms. There are 15 kilocalories per 100 grams of product. Also in this portion there is about 1.5 grams of proteins, 1 gram of fat, 1 gram of carbohydrates, 95 grams of water and 1.5 grams of chitin (dietary fiber). Vitamins in Chernushka are also quite small. 100 grams account for 0.03 milligrams of thiamine (B1), 0.24 milligrams of riboflavin (B2); 8 milligrams of vitamin C and about 0.15 milligrams of vitamin PP.
There are extremely few minerals in these mushrooms. However, in the aqueous extract of this fungus contains ascorbic acid, as well as alkaloids of nonball and incorruptor, which have an antibacterial effect. The antioxidant effect is due to the presence of a large concentration of polyphenols in it.
Cooking and storage
If you decide to eat chernuki for food, then this issue should be approached with all caution. Immediately after the collection, the mushrooms must be treated to avoid the process of necrosis, which occurs due to various fungal bacteria. Mushrooms should be washed and cleaned of black plaque, without removing the skin of the mushroom. After that, the mushrooms are poured with water for several days with a periodic replacement of water. The period of soaking can last up to 5 days. During this time, you can completely get rid of a bitter taste. After that, the blacks are greasy. No soups are prepared from them and do not fried. Their bright unusual taste and aroma are widely appreciated among many mushroom pickers.
It is best to collect young mushrooms, when the hat is just starting to grow and has the appearance of funnels with bent edges. The plates of the young mushroom should be light. This is due to the fact that the largest number of noncatholicorn accumulates in mature and old chernushki, which causes severe bitterness of the mushroom.
Since these mushrooms are conditionally sedimentary, the probability of sending when eating them is still there. Although poisoning with chernushka will not lead to death, it can lead to gastroenteritis. Symptoms of this disease include:
If you notice a number of symptoms after consuming chernushki, then you should call a doctor. As a rule, the first symptoms of poisoning appear a couple of hours after taking mushrooms. During the waiting period, it is recommended to drink several glasses with dissolved sodium salt. This will help to provoke vomiting. It is also recommended to take a laxative and drink fluid before the arrival of doctors. In no case should you take alcohol tinctures and everything that contains alcohol. With any symptoms of poisoning, you need to urgently call an ambulance.