Caspian seal, or Caspian seal (lat. Pusa Caspica) is an animal that belongs to the class of mammals, a detachment of predatory and the family real seals. This predator was highlighted in a separate species Caspian seal.
This animal has a spindle and fluffy body, the length of which is 130-150 cm. The mass of the individual can vary from 40 to 80 kg. Sexual dimorphism is expressed in size and color: males are slightly larger than females, their hair is darker.
The Caspian seal has almost no neck, it is very short. The head of the animal is small, the skull is flattened. The seal has no ears, instead of them the predator has auditory passages that are invisible. The eyes of these mammals are black and rather large. They are covered by a veil during a dive. On land they often watery. These predators have a thick fat layer that allows you to calmly endure the cold and lack of food. The skin of the seal is durable, it is covered with thick wool. The color of adults is usually dirty white, on the back the wool is almost green.
There are membranes between the fingers of the seals. There are strong claws on the front limbs of the animals that help create holes they are needed to get out on land.
Where it lives
Caspian seals inhabit the coast of the Caspian Sea, the habitat is located on the territory of Iran. On the southern shores of the sea, the view is practically not presented. Individuals are often migrated. So, at the beginning of winter, they move to glaciers located in the north of the Caspian. By the end of winter, these temporary habitats begin to melt, at this time the seals move to the southern coasts of this sea. There is always a lot of food here, it helps animals build a fat layer. In summer and summer, these predators can swim into the mouths of. Volga. They like to drift on ice floes. In the winter, the seals are most of the time in water, and in the summer they rest on land.
Caspian seal eats many species of fish: sprat and herring, sand widecolum. The animal also feeds on shrimp and sideworms, but the favorite of the predator bulls. Sometimes a mammal eats small representatives of invertebrates. Crustaceans are not very popular among Nerp.
To find food, the animal drops under water. It can swim kilometers before finding prey. The maximum depth to which the seal is immersed 85 m. During the day, an adult uses 3-6 kg of fish. Premium is digested from 2 to 4 hours.
Almost all his life the animal spends under water. Caspian seals swim perfectly thanks to a small rounded head and spindleshaped shape. Therefore, a predator can be in water about 1.5 hours. Often the seals sleep on the water.
In winter, Caspian seals rarely appear on land and do this only to gain air. They have roles for which animals come in the marriage period.
Predators have good smell and vision. They are very distrustful and always careful. The danger can wait on land and, if this happens, the individual quickly floats.
Caspian seals loners. These animals create flocks only during the breeding period, but even then they are a little sideways relatives.
These animals become sexually mature only at 6 or 7 years old. Males can have offspring later. Females usually give birth every year or once every 2 years. Approximately 10% of females to stop the propagation period do not get pregnant.
The breeding season starts in the spring. The female hatches a cub from 10 to 11 months. They produce offspring right on the glaciers. At this time, female individuals are especially vulnerable. One female gives birth 1-3 puppy weighing 5 kg and a length of 65-79 cm. At the birth of the cubs are covered with white fur they are called Belki. First, the mother feeds them with milk, but at 2-4 months this period ends.
Females are well prepared for the birth of babies. They create shelters from snow where they feed offspring. Then the mother transfers cubs to an adult diet. Even before that, the wool of the underwear changes color. Males do not contact their puppies.
Caspian seals have many natural enemies. Often it is the Belki and their mothers that become the prey of these predators. Foxes and wolves, killer whales and brown bears, sharks attack defenseless seals. Sometimes, when walruses have no choice at all, and they attack Caspian seals.
Humanity causes huge damage to the populations of this species. Poacher is currently flourishing, animal habitats are polluted. Because of this, the number of Caspian seals is constantly declining.
This species is listed in the International Red Book. It is believed that the Caspian seals are at risk of disappearance. A decrease in the population began in the 1970s, in 1975 the population decreased half. Now the law prohibits killing more than 50 thousand. mammals per year, but this can lead to the extinction of animals.
At the moment, in Eurasia, they are trying to resolve the issue of the ban on hunting is not a view. The authorities are trying to minimize the impact on the natural habitat of the seal, reducing the emissions of oil products.
Today, the following measures are held to preserve the species: scientists analyze the water of the Caspian for the level of pollution, representatives of the species are carefully guarded in the Astrakhan Biosphere Reserve.
- The Caspian seal has a strong dream. Often, scientists swam to the sleeping predator and turned it over, but the seal continued to sleep.
- These animals have an interesting ability: they can delay, and then resume the development of the fetus. This ability is caused by necessity: in harsh winters, if the kids are born, they will not survive.
- The age of the Caspian seal can be determined by the number of circles on claws.
- Caspian seals are quite energetic animals. They can swim at a speed of about 30 km/h. By land, they move with the tail and front fins, fingering them in turn.
- Zoologists believe that in life in good conditions and abundance of food, animals can live 50 years. But today life expectancy is 15 years. The individual grows up to 20 years, but many die without even reaching the middle age.
- The ancestors of the Caspian seals existed in a tertiary period, but instead of the fins they had limbs, similar to paws.