The family of cereals, or rebel, can be safely attributed to the most numerous of the famous families. It includes many cultures in demand in agricultural production, without which many simply do not represent life: these are wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, bamboo and many other widespread plants.
Cereals are common on all continents without exception and even on Antarctica not so long ago, cereal (ordinary rebelli). Well, in the savannah and steppe zones, it is the cereals that are the overwhelming basis of the entire phytomass. In total, this family includes about six thousand species.
Description of cereals
The whole family of cereals can be attributed to the vast class of monodol. And among this family there are grassy, and shrubs, and trees: both annual and perennial plants.
Among the huge number of all the cereals do not find either epiphytes or saprophytes. There are no parasites among them. The variety of cereals can be divided by their structure into:
These groups, in turn, are distributed to subgroups, which differ among themselves by a variety of details of the structure of shoots (both its aboveground parts and underground).
For example, the vast group of cereals turf it is customary to separate depending on the process of resuming shoots (and it can be nonunhealthy and intravagilant) on loosebeer and dense subgroups.
Typically, the shoots of these plants are both generative and vegetative, with the next plates of narrow leaves located in two rows and equipped with parallel veins.
Types of cereal plants
Cereal cereal plants
Grain cereal plants usually include the most familiar plants familiar to everyone:
- Wheat is a herbaceous plant that can be called the leading grain culture in most territories of the planet;
- Rye sowing or cultural this is a herbaceous plant that combines more than four dozen varieties;
- Corn, the only representative of a kind who includes four wild corn, sugar and three of their subspecies;
- Rice is a cereal culture of the cereal family, which is quite demanding on growth conditions, but extremely common in Asian countries.
Decorative cereal plants
Among the decorative cereals can be distinguished:
Amaranth is a widewidespread culture, called marigold, fox tail, anxsomik.
Weed cereals usually include:
The rebellion is oneyearold
In addition to the usual and wellknown cultivated plants, the family of cereals also have weeds that harm agriculture and perennial herbs are absolutely harmless. The herbal plants of the cereal family include:
Signs and features of cereal
Cereal plants are distinguished by a variety of life forms here are shrubs with halfbrushes, and trees, and herbs (both perennial and annual). In general, all bread cereals have general biological features both in the root system and in other moments.
For example, most of them have a uterine root system, which has both primary and secondary roots. Cereal inflorescences are blizzards or ears, brushes or ears. The fruits of cereals are pseudomoncarpy, or, more simply, grain, a feature of which is the amniotic cloak adjacent to the seed, sometimes even growing up with a spermerma.
Growing cereals also requires caution: here it is necessary to observe the time of sowing and the order of crop rotation. It should be borne in mind that winter cereals reach the end of summer, trying to meet the onset of frosts. And to start growing, such types of grains require just a low temperature starting from 0C degrees. And spring varieties, on the contrary, develop at sufficiently high temperatures from 10 to 20 degrees, and they need to be sowed with a warm spring. Winter varieties are more productive at the same time because they are better off using all the resource capabilities of the Earth: both power elements and moisture reserves.
Winter sowing time after early cleaned crops (legumes, for example), but the spring is sown immediately after row crops and herbs.
Fertilizers for cereals are usually applied in the form in the form of zyaban processing so, when sowing, granules of fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorus) are brought into the ranks of culture). The same top dressing is carried out in the spring.
The structure of the cereals
The inflorescences of cereals consist of a large number of elementary spikelet inflorescences, and usually distinguish several of their species:
The flowers of cereals are usually small and pale painted: they, as a rule, include three stamens, the fruit with a shortened column and a couple of periy stigmas. The fruit of almost all cereals is a grain, t.e. densely fused with a thin shell of the seed.
In turn, the shoots of most of the cereal crops can be divided into vegetative and generative while each of these shoots can calmly relate to a perennial plant and annuals.
Typically, cereals do not have a secondary thickening mechanism in the stem zone, and the branching system is organized in the nuclear zone, or is directly related to the inflorescence area.
The stems of cereals can be attributed to cylindrical. All of them are sequenced in their mass, and in the internodes are usually hollow, like straws. There is an exception to this rule several species and families (for example, bamboo, corn and reed).
The inflorescences of cereals are usually their elementary parts, spikelets, in which, as a rule, there are several flowers-wind and self-pollinated. In typical cases, such flowers have several flower scales the upper and lower. At the same time, the median vein of the scales forms a sharp rib, which received the characteristic name “keel”. Upper Chushuya forms several such keels that are most likely formed precisely from the fusion of several scales. There are three small polycols inside the main scales of the flower they are considered elements related to the inner circle of the perianth.
A similar structure gives every reason to attribute the perianth of the cereals to the threemembered, or threedimensional. Usually there are three stamens in each flower, and during an ovary several cirrus stigmas are formed.
The value of cereals
The meaning of all cereals is difficult to underestimate, because most of them make up the main food diet of mankind throughout the Earth. Bread, porridge and other cereals have been made for several thousand years.
Although not all cereals were appreciated from the very beginning so, Statlikov did not always pay due attention. Exactly until the moment that humanity has not invented the way to grind the fruits of these plants into flour. And from the flour they had already made the dough, which became cakes and other types of bread.
However, cereals are not only the basis of the food diet. They have a medical value, because they include a huge amount of useful substances.
The cereal family is diverse and very numerous they have more than 750 genera. Usually, plants of this species are customary to be attributed to the class of monodol. A huge number of cereals have indispensable advantages not only in the food sphere, but also, for example, as decorative crops that are actively used in landscape design.
Cereals live on all continents as herbs and trees, and their fruits contain a huge amount of nutrients, essential oils, proteins and the like. In addition, it is cereal an important element of the feed and food culture.