Despite the widespread opinion, not all chickens look the same, birds are of different sizes and flowers. However, the overall structure of the body of the chicken is quite common for all species:
- Types of chickens
- Egg breeds of chickens
- Rare species
- Breeds and varieties of chickens
- Description of the appearance of the chicken
- Comb and story of domesticating chicken
- Chicken is a bird that does not fly
- How long the chicken live, and what the lifetime depends on
- What the chickens eat in nature
- Natural enemies of chickens in nature
- Social hierarchy of birds
- Relations of man and chickens
- From the Roosteen battles to the rank of exhibitions
Types of chickens
These birds are adapted to long (sometimes up to 0.5 hours) battles. Breeds are displayed by people taking into account the specifics of the activity. Chickens are pumped with steroids, pluck feathers.
Hard measures for their selection led to the emergence of large roosters of the Belgian breed. They weigh from 3.5 to 5.5 kg. Not only fight well, but also bring many chicks with delicious meat.
Small breed Azil
Small breed Azil weighs up to 2.5 kg, aggressive, even attacks people.
The Uzbek breed of chickens conducts hard battles, in between competitions it is used to postpone a large number of eggs.
Moscow chickens weigh from 2.7 to 6 kg. People breed them mainly not for competitions, but for the sake of meat.
Japanese combat hens
Japanese combat hens are not adapted to severe conditions of detention, die from frosts more often than in battles.
Russian riders won sympathies with a pretty crest. The main criterion for selecting this type of chickens is an unusual appearance.
Miniature chickens weigh from 400 to 500 g, but have a beautiful tail by a fan and carry up to 90 eggs per year.
Paduan, in addition to beauty, is also fruitful, the owner receives 120 eggs annually.
Dutch whitehaired black chickens
Dutch whitehaired black hens outwardly beautiful, but demanding on content.
Chickens of the Shabo breed
Shabo is kept on the farm due to unusual plumage.
These are large chickens with a balanced character, give a lot of meat, few eggs or do not multiply at all.
Kornish weighing up to 5 kg, carries up to 160 eggs per year.
Their meat is juicy and tenderness, and the eggs are large.
Brahma weighs up to 6 kg, tied to the owner, even a pity to score them.
These are universal chickens, they receive meat and eggs, unpretentious, do not require special conditions.
This is a hybrid of three breeds with delicate and delicious meat, give up to 180 eggs, live in a warm climate. Hens weigh up to 2.7 kg, roosters 3.5.
Barneverder weighs 3.75 kg, receive 180 eggs annually.
Yurlovsky vocabulary, in addition to 160 eggs, will give 3.3 kg of meat, independently force eggs.
Leningrad white eggs will be 160-180 eggs annually. Weigh 4.3 kilos.
Zagorskaya salmon breed of chickens
Roosters 4.5 kg. Chickens carry up to 280 eggs per year.
Kotlyarevsky weigh 3.2-4 kg. Egg production from 155 eggs/year.
Golosheniy breed of chickens
Golosheny gives up to 180 eggs, meat 2-3.5 kg.
Poltava layers bring 190 eggs.
Red whitetailed chickens
Red whitetailed up to 4.5 kg, eggs give up to 160 pieces.
Egg breeds of chickens
This is a choice for those who sell eggs in the market.
Russian white brings 250 300 eggs.
Lyghorna ovates daily from 17 weeks of age.
Minors carry up to 200 eggs.
Italian partridge brings up to 240 eggs.
The Hamburg chicken is pretty and prolific 220 eggs from one layer per year.
Czech golden Kura
Czech golden gives 170 eggs weighing 55-60 gr.
These hens are on the verge of extinction:
Arakuana, the birthplace of South America, carry blue eggs.
Gudan, origin France. The crest on the head and a magnificent beard are appreciated by ornithologists.
Yokogama is a calm chicken, but whimsical, quickly dies in inappropriate conditions.
Breeds and varieties of chickens
There are approximately 175 varieties of chickens grouped in 12 classes and approximately 60 breeds. Class is a group of rocks coming from one geographical region. The names themselves are Asian, American, Mediterranean and others indicate the region of the origin of the class of birds.
The breed means a group that has a certain set of physical characteristics, such as the shape of the body, the color of the skin, posture and the number of fingers. The variety is the subcategory of the breed based on the color of the pen, crest or the presence of a beard. Each breed has a body shape and physical characteristics should be identical. The commercial breed of chickens is a group or population that was bred and improved by a person to achieve certain desirable characteristics.
Description of the appearance of the chicken
In birds, paws are covered with scales, with sharp claws they capture objects. Chickens are not just white, brown and black they are gold, silver, red, blue and green!
Adult roosters (males) have clear red crests and amazing plumage, they have large tails and shiny pointed feathers. The roosters have spurs on the paws that they use in battles with other males. In some breeds, the “beard” of feathers is visible under the lower beak.
Chickens are covered with feathers, but have rudimentary hairs scattered throughout the body. The average consumer does not see these hairs because they are scorched at the processing factory. Chicken has a beak, no teeth. Food in the stomach is chewed. Many commercial manufacturers of poultry meat do not add small pebbles to the feed of chickens, which birds collect along with grass on free grazing, feed the feed of thin consistency, which is quickly digested by digestive juices.
Chickens have hollow bones, which makes the body easier for the flight if the bird has not lost the ability to make at least short flights.
There are 13 air bags in the body of chicken, which, again, make the body easier, and these bags are the functional part of the respiratory system.
One of the features that differ from most birds is that the chicken has a comb and two beards. A crest is a red process on the head of the head, and the beards are two processes under the chin. These are secondary sexual characteristics, and they are more noticeable in roosters.
Comb and story of domesticating chicken
The comb served as the basis in the Latin name or classification of chickens. Translated from Latin Gallus means a comb, and the home chicken Gallus domesticus. Banquiv (red) jungle chicken the ancestor of most home chickens, in Latin is called Gallus Bankiva. It is believed that the breeds and varieties of home chickens, known today, descended from Gallus Bankiva, also called Gallus Gallus from Southeast Asia, where it still exists in nature. Home chickens were bred in India in 3200 g. BC.e., and the records indicate that they were contained in China and Egypt in 1400 g. BC.e.
There are eight biologists of the species of chicken crests:
Chicken is a bird that does not fly
Two paws and two wings support and control body movements. Home chickens have essentially lost the ability to fly. Heavy rocks used for meat production make small wings, jump to a slightly higher level and move on the ground. Birds with a light body fly to short distances, and some take off above relatively high fences.
How long the chicken live, and what the lifetime depends on
Chicken live relatively not for long. Some specimens live up to 10-15 years, but they are an exception, not a rule. In the commercial production of birds of birds, about 18 months from the genus are replaced with new young chickens. The sample chicken takes about six months for puberty and the start of laying eggs. Then they produce eggs for 12-14 months. After that, the economic value of chickens is quickly decreasing, so they are clogged at the age of about 18 months.
Chickens have both white (breast) and dark (paws, hips, back and neck) meat. Wings contain both light and dark fibers.
It is believed that modest poultry comes from red and gray chicken from the jungle that live in the tropical forests of India. Zoologists believe that the home chicken is more closely connected with the gray chicken from the jungle due to the yellow color of its skin. Outwardly wild and domesticated chicken are similar, but chickens from the jungle give about half as much as agricultural chicken.
Chickens were domesticated more than 10,000 years ago, when the Indians, and then the Vietnamese began to breed chickens for meat, feathers and eggs. It is believed that the domestication of chickens quickly spread throughout Asia, Europe and Africa, which led to the fact that the chicken has become the most popular animal cultivated person today.
In the world, there are at least 25 billion chickens, which is the highest population among birds in the world. The chicken usually reaches about 40 cm in height.
A male at the chickens is called a cock or a rooster. The female is called chicken, and small fluffy yellow cubs chickens. Chickens live in nature up to 4 or 5 years, but commercially grown specimens are usually clogged at the age of one year.
What the chickens eat in nature
Chickens are omnivorous animals, which means that they eat a mixture of plant and animal substances. Although chicken are usually rowing with their paws on the ground in search of seeds, berries and insects, it is also known that they eat large animals, such as lizards and even mice.
Natural enemies of chickens in nature
Chickens are easy prey for numerous predators, including foxes, cats, dogs, raccoons, snakes and large rats. Chicken eggs are a popular snack for animals, and other species are also stolen, including large birds and affection.
Social hierarchy of birds
Chicken are sociable creatures, and they are happy surrounded by other chickens. In one chicken flock there can be any number of chickens, but only one cockerel that is a dominant male. He expels other roosters from a pack when they become large enough to pose a threat to him. The dominant male is a sexual partner for all chickens in a pack.
Relations of man and chickens
Intensive commercial production of chickens occurs around the world, where they are forcibly feed and contain on farms together with hundreds of thousands of other chickens, often without free space for movement.
Chicken that carry eggs close into tiny cells and clog when they no longer produce eggs. The conditions in which the chickens live are disgusting, so Kuritsa lovers should lay out several extra cents on organic meat or for eggs from freely walking chickens.
From the Roosteen battles to the rank of exhibitions
The earliest domestication of birds were used mainly for cockaheads, and not for food. The cocks were banned in the Western world and replaced poultry exhibitions in the 18th century. Poultry exhibitions began in America in 1849. Interest in these shows increased, and numerous breeds and varieties were displayed and continue to be displayed, which led to the appearance of a large number of varieties of chickens, which now exist on Earth.
Sometimes the chicken incubates eggs. In this state, she is called a chicken-nashed. She sits motionless on the nest and protests if she is disturbed or removed from him. The hen leaves the nest only to eat, drink or bathe in the dust. All the time, while the chicken is in the nest, it regularly turns eggs, maintains constant temperature and humidity.
At the end of the incubation period, which is on average 21 days, eggs (if they are fertilized) will hatch, the chicken begins to take care of the chickens. Since the eggs do not hatch at the same time (the chicken lays only one egg for about every 25 hours), the hen remains in the nest for about two days after healing the first chicks. During this time, young chickens live at the expense of egg yolk, which they absorb immediately before the birth. The chicken hears the chicks turning inside the eggs, and gently clicks on the shell, which stimulates the activity of chickens. If the eggs are not fertilized and do not hatch, the hen, in the end, gets tired of the brood and leaves the nest.
Modern breeds of chickens are bred without maternal instinct. They do not hatch the eggs, and even if they become heated, they leave the nest without sitting and half the term. Homemade chickens regularly lay eggs with offspring, hatch chickens and become excellent mothers.