Classes of medical waste | Classification and types of waste

Medical waste is garbage left after mass vaccination from pharmaceutical enterprises and medical institutions. This type of waste has its own classes for easier disposal. Each type of waste is stored under certain conditions until it is removed and disposed of according to certain rules. Regulations are necessary to protect the environment.

general characteristics

Medical waste, from the total amount of garbage, takes no more than 3%, but they are the most dangerous, as they can harm not only humans, but also the environment. A large number of all kinds of viruses can be present on medical waste materials, which, if safety rules are not followed, can cause local epidemics. Outbreaks of mass diseases, in turn, can cause the emergence of a new strain of the virus.

Classes of medical waste | Classification and types of waste

Medical waste includes the following materials:

  • Plastic, this includes all kinds of plastic injection equipment, which may contain traces of medicines or viruses. They can cause serious harm if used carelessly.
  • Food waste, these include all unused food in a medical facility.
  • Paper, one of the safest types of waste, only packaging products fall into this category.
  • Glass, it includes all kinds of glass products.
  • biological debris.
  • Chemical waste is drugs or medicinal substances that are expired.
  • Any of the presented types of waste carries potential harm to the environment and humans, before direct disposal, garbage undergoes special disinfection.

    Many medical institutions use fire to eliminate such garbage, this is the only way to fight and reliably eliminate this type of raw material.

    Sources of medical waste

    The generation of medical waste is directly related to the following enterprises:

  • Preventive institutions;
  • Municipal health facilities;
  • Private healthcare facilities;
  • Emergency rooms;
  • Centers where blood is transfused;
  • Social institutions: nursing home, orphanage;
  • Laboratories where infections are investigated;
  • Veterinary clinics;
  • Pharmaceutical production.
  • The activities of such organizations daily produce a large amount of garbage, which can pose a different degree of danger and requires prompt and high-quality elimination.

    Waste classification

    The distribution of salvage by class will depend on the degree of threat. The following classes are distinguished:

  • Class A, this is the safest type of waste, they did not come into contact with sick patients and do not contain any kind of infection, they are completely safe for others. These include food leftovers, they do not contain toxic components. The exclusion group includes waste from infectious, venereal, tuberculosis, dermatological departments.
  • Class B, hazardous substances that are infected enter here: materials with blood and other secretions, operational organic substances, waste from the infectious diseases department, garbage from microbiological laboratories of 3 or 4 degrees of pathogenicity. This category of garbage is dangerous to others.
  • Class B, this is a very hazardous waste, they include garbage from patients who have serious infections, raw materials from laboratories working with microbes of 1 and 2 degrees of pathogenicity. This class of waste is contained in containers with red color and special markings.
  • Class G, garbage gets here, which in its composition resembles industrial waste. This class includes: expired medicines, waste from the production of medicines, disinfectants, chemical components, as well as waste containing mercury.
  • Class D is responsible for radioactive waste, all waste that has radiation radiation gets here.
  • Not all medical waste can be incinerated under normal conditions, some require a specific approach.

    Basic recommendations for handling medical waste

    There are special rules for handling medical waste, they are specified in SanPiN Medical waste poses a threat to humans and nature before it is disposed of, the garbage is disinfected to protect against infection by all kinds of microorganisms.

    Waste was divided into classes depending on the level of expected harm to others. This degree of gradation allows you to properly handle each category of garbage.

    Before direct disposal, medical waste goes through the following stages:

    Classes of medical waste | Classification and types of waste
  • a general collection of substances is carried out in a medical institution;
  • garbage is transported to a special storage located within the institution;
  • there is disinfection of garbage, as well as general disinfection of reusable instruments;
  • waste is removed from medical enterprises;
  • the final stage is the elimination or disposal of hazardous substances.
  • When collecting garbage, it is required to adhere to the basic rules, it is required to collect material in special gloves, garbage is placed in containers or special bags. Garbage bags can be of different colors, depending on the degree of danger of raw materials:

  • class A white;
  • class B yellow;
  • class B red;
  • class G black.
  • Waste is transported, adhering to certain rules. Export is carried out by special services that have a license to carry out this kind of activity. These services carry out the removal and disposal of garbage, taking into account the degree of danger.

    Medical waste poses a high risk of spreading infections and bacteria, may contain radiation and pose a danger to humans. The problem with the elimination of this kind of waste exists in each individual country. Security must be top notch. There are special rules, if they are adhered to, the degree of risk is completely absent.

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