Climatic zones and natural zones of the Earth

On Earth, a very diverse climate is for the reason that the planet heats up unevenly, and atmospheric precipitation also unevenly falls out. Climate classification began to be offered back in the 19th century, around the 70s. Professor of Moscow State University b.P.Alisova spoke of 7 types of climate, which make up their climatic belt. In her opinion, only four climatic belts can be called the main ones, and three belts are transitional. Let’s look at the main characteristics and features of climatic zones.

Types of climatic belts:

Equatorial belt

Equatorial air masses prevail here throughout the year. At a time when the sun is right above the belt, and these are the days of the spring and autumn equinox, heat stands on the equatorial belt, the temperature approximately 28 degrees above zero. The water temperature does not differ much from the air temperature, by about 1 degree. There is a lot of precipitation here, about 3000 mm. The evaporation here is low, so there are many swampy areas in this belt, as well as many dense wet forests, due to swampy soil. Passats bring sediments to these areas of the equatorial belt, that is, rainy winds. This type of climate is located above the north of South America, over the Gulf of Guinea, above the Congo River and the Supreme of the Nile, as well as almost all the Indonesian archipelago, over part of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which are located in Asia and over the banks of Lake Victoria, which is located in Africa, which is located in Africa.

Tropical belt

This type of climatic zone is located simultaneously in the southern and northern hemispheres. This type of climate is divided into mainland and ocean tropical climate. The mainland is located above the larger territory of the high pressure region, therefore, there is little precipitation in this belt, approximately 250 mm. Here is a sultry summer, so the air temperature rises to 40 degrees above zero. In winter, the temperature is not below 10 degrees above zero.

There are no clouds in the sky, so this climate is characterized by cold nights. The daily temperature changes are quite large, so this contributes to the high destruction of rocks.

Due to the large decay of rocks, a huge amount of dust and sand forms, which further forms sand storms. Storm data for a person cause a potential danger. The western and eastern part of the mainland climate differ in many. Since cold movements flow along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and therefore the air temperature here is much lower, there is little precipitation, about 100 mm. If you look at the east coast, then warm currents flow here, therefore, the air temperature is higher and the precipitation falls out more. For tourism, this area is quite suitable.

Ocean climate

This type of climate is slightly similar to the equatorial climate, the only difference is that there is smaller cloudy and strong, stable winds. The summer air temperature does not rise above 27 degrees, and in winter it does not fall below 15 degrees. The period for precipitation is mainly summer, but there are very few of them, about 50 mm. This arid area in the summer is filled with tourists and guests of coastal cities.

Temperate climate

Precipitation here occurs often and go throughout the year. This happens under the influence of Western winds. In summer, the air temperature does not rise above 28 degrees, and in winter it reaches –50 degrees. There are many 3000 mm on the coasts of precipitation, and in the central areas 1000 mm. Bright changes are manifested when changing the seasons of the year. A moderate climate is formed in two hemispheres north and southern and located above moderate latitude. The low pressure area prevails here.

This type of climate is divided into vocquests: marine and continental.

Sea subclimate prevails in the western part of North America, Eurasia and South America. The wind is brought from the ocean to the mainland. From this we can conclude that the summer here is cool (+20 degrees), but the winter is relatively warm and soft (+5 degrees). There is a lot of precipitation up to 6000 mm in the mountains.
Continental vocation prevails in the central areas. There is less precipitation here, since there are practically no cyclones here. In summer, the temperature is approximately +26 degrees, and in winter it is quite cold24 degrees with a large snow cover. In Eurasia, the continental vocabulary is pronounced only in Yakutia. Winter here is cold with a small amount of precipitation. This is because in the internal areas of Eurasia, the regions are least affected by the ocean and ocean winds. On the coast, under the influence of a large amount of precipitation in winter, frost softens, and in the summer the heat is softened.

There is also a monsoon slope, which prevails in Kamchatka, Korea, in northern Japan, parts of China. This subtype is expressed by a frequent change in monsoons. Mussones are winds that, as a rule, bring rains to the mainland and always blow from the ocean to land. Winter here is cold thanks to cold winds, and summer is rainy. Rains or monsoons bring winds from the Pacific Ocean here. There are quite a few on the island of Sakhalin and Kamchatka, approximately 2000 mm. Air masses in the entire moderate type of climate are only moderate. Due to the increased humidity of these islands, with a 2000 mm of precipitation per year for an unusual person, acclimatization in this area is necessary.

Polar climate

This type of climate forms two belts: Antarctic and Arctic. Polar air masses dominate here all year round. During the polar night, there is no sun on this type of climate for several months, and during the polar day it does not leave at all, but shines for several months. Snow cover never melts here, and ice and snow radiating heat, carry constant cold air into the air. The power of winds is weakened here and there are no clouds at all. Precipitation here is catastrophically small, but particles resembling needles constantly fly in the air. Precipitation here is the maximum of 100 mm. In summer, the air temperature does not exceed 0 degrees, and in winter it reaches –40 degrees. In the summer, periodic frozen prevails in the air. When traveling to this area, you can see that the face tingles a little frost, so the temperature seems to be higher than it is actually.

All the types of climate discussed above are considered the main ones, because here the air masses correspond to these belts. There are also intermediate types of climate, which in their name bear the prefix “Sub”. In such types of climate, air masses are replaced by the upcoming seasons. They go from nearby belts. Scientists explain this by the fact that when the earth moves around its axis, climatic zones move alternately, then south, then to the north.

Intermediate types of climate

Subequatorial type of climate

Here, in the summer, equatorial masses come, and in winter the tropical masses dominate. There is a lot of precipitation only in the summer period about 3000 mm, but despite this, the sun is merciless here and the air temperature reaches +30 degrees all summer. Winter is cool.

In this climatic zone, good blowing and drainage of the soil. The air temperature here reaches +14 degrees in terms of precipitation, there are very few of them in winter. Good soil drainage prevents water from stagnation and form swamps, as in the equatorial type of climate. This type of climate makes it possible to settle. Here are states that are populated by the people to the limit, for example, India, Ethiopia, Indochina. A lot of cultivated plants grow here, which export to various countries. In the north of this belt are Venezuela, Guinea, India, Indochina, Africa, Australia, South America, Bangladesh and other states. Amazonia, Brazil, North of Australia and the Center of Africa are located in the south.

Subtropic type of climate

Here in the summer tropical air masses prevail, and in winter they come here from moderate latitudes and carry a large amount of precipitation. Summer is dry and hot, and the temperature reaches +50 degrees. Winter is very soft with a maximum temperature of20 degrees. Small amount of precipitation, approximately 120 mm.

In the West, the Mediterranean climate prevails, which is characterized by hot summer and rainy winter. This area differs in the fact that there is a little more precipitation here. 600 mm of precipitation falls approximately for a year here. This area is favorable for resorts and the lives of people in general.

Among the crops, grapes, citrus fruits and olives are grown here. Mousson winds prevail here. It is dry and cold here in winter, and in the summer it is sophisticated and humid. Seduction here falls about 800 mm per year. Forests blow the forest from the sea to land and carry precipitation with them, and in winter the winds blow from land to sea. This type of climate is pronounced in the northern hemisphere and in the east of Asia. Vegetation here grows well due to abundant rains. Also, thanks to abundant rains, agriculture is well developed here, which gives life to the local population.

The subpolar type of climate

Summer here is cool and wet. The temperature rises to the limits of +10, and precipitation is about 300 mm. On the mountain slopes, the amount of precipitation is greater than on the plains. The thumberness of the territory indicates a low outburst of the territory, as well as here a large number of lakes. Winter here is quite long and cold, and the temperature reaches50 degrees. The boundaries of the poles do not pass evenly, this is what indicates an uneven heating of the Earth and the variety of relief.

Antarctic and Arctic climatic zones

Arctic air dominates here, but the snow crust does not melt. In winter, the air temperature reaches71 degrees below zero. In summer, the temperature can only rise to –20 degrees. There is very little precipitation here.

In these climatic zones, air masses from the Arctic, which prevail in winter, on moderate air masses that dominate in the summer are changing. Winter here lasts 9 months, and it is quite cold, since on average the air temperature decreases to a 40degree mark. In summer, on average, a temperature of about 0 degrees holds. For this type of climate, there is a high humidity, which is approximately 200 mm and a fairly low moisture evaporation. The winds here are strong and blow in a given area often. This type of climate is located on the northern coast of North America and Eurasia, as well as the Antarctic and the Aleutian Islands.

Moderate climatic belt

In such a climatic belt, winds from the west prevail over the rest, and Mussona blow from the east. If monsoons blow, then dropdown precipitation depends on how far the area is located from the sea, as well as on the terrain. The closer to the sea, the more precipitation falls. The northern and western parts of the continents carry a lot of precipitation, and in the southern parts there are very few. Winter and summer are very different here, there are also differences in the climate on sushi and at sea. The snow cover here lasts only a couple of months, in winter the temperature differs significantly from the summer air temperature.

The moderate belt consists of four climatic belts: a sea climatic zone (a fairly warm winter and rainy summer), a continental climatic belt (a lot of precipitation falls in the summer), a monsoon climate belt (cold winter and a rainy summer), as well as a transitional climate from marine climate climate belts to the continental climatic zone.

Subtropical and tropical climatic zones

Hot and dry air usually prevails in the tropics. Between winter and summer periods, the difference in temperature is large and even very significant. In summer, the temperature is on average +35 degrees, and in winter +10 degrees. Large temperatures here appear between day and night temperature. There is little precipitation in the tropical type of climate, a maximum of 150 mm per year. On the coasts, more precipitation, but not a lot, since moisture goes to land from the ocean.

In the Subtropics in the summer, dry air than in winter. In winter, it is more humid. The summer here is very hot, since the air temperature rises to +30 degrees. In winter, the air temperature is rarely below zero degrees, so even in winter it is not particularly cold here. When snow falls out, it melts very quickly and does not leave the snow cover. A little precipitation falls here approximately 500 mm. There are several climatic belts in the subtropics: a monsoon, bringing rains from the ocean to land and on the coast, Mediterranean, which is distinguished by a large amount of precipitation and continental, on which it is much less and more dry and warm.

Subequatorial and equatorial climatic zones

The air temperature on average is +28 degrees, and its differences from daytime temperature to the night are insignificant. Sufficiently high humidity and weak winds are characteristic of this type of climate. Precipitation here falls every year 2000 mm. A pair of rainy periods is replaced by less rainy periods. The equatorial climatic belt is located in the Amazon, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, Africa, on the Malacca Peninsula, on the islands of New Guinea.

On both sides of the equatorial climatic zone are subequatorial belts. In summer, the equatorial type of climate prevails here, and in winter tropical and dry. That is why precipitation falls more in the summer period than in the winter period. On the slopes of the mountains precipitation, even go off the limits and reach 10,000 mm per year and this is all thanks to the pouring rains that dominate here all year round. On average, the temperature holds approximately +30 degrees. The difference between winter and summer is greater than in the equatorial type of climate. There is a subequatorial type of climate for the highlands of Brazil, New Guinea and South America, as well as in North Australia.

Climate types

To date, there are three criteria for climate classification:

  • by the features of the circulation of air masses;
  • by the nature of the geographical relief;
  • According to climatic signs.
  • Based on certain indicators, the following types of climate can be distinguished:

  • Solar. It determines the amount of receipt and distribution of ultraviolet radiation on the earth’s surface. The determination of the solar climate is affected by astronomical indicators, season and breadth;
  • Mountain. The climatic conditions at a height in the mountains are distinguished by reduced atmospheric pressure and clean air, increased solar radiation and an increase in the amount of precipitation;
  • Arid. Dominates in deserts and semideserts. There are large fluctuations in the temperature of the day and night, as well as precipitation are practically absent and are a rare occurrence of several years;
  • Humid. Very humid climate. It is formed in places where sunlight is not enough, so moisture does not have time to evaporate;
  • Nivalny. This climate is inherent in the area where precipitation falls mainly in solid form, they settled in the form of glaciers and snow blocks, do not have time to melt and evaporate;
  • Urban. The city always has a higher temperature higher than in the district. Solar radiation comes in a reduced amount, therefore, daylight hours are shorter than on natural objects nearby. The clouds are more concentrated above the cities, and precipitation occurs more often, although in some settlements the level of humidity is reduced.
  • In general, on the whole, the climatic zones are naturally alternated, but they are not always pronounced. In addition, climate features depend on the terrain and terrain. In the zone where anthropogenic influence is most manifested, the climate will differ from the conditions of natural objects. It should be noted that over time, one or another climatic zone undergoes changes, climatic indicators change, which leads to changes in ecosystems on the planet.

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