Coatedseed or flowering plants are the most large and modern group of plant world. They originate from extinct algae, which laid the development of seed fern. As a result, gymnosperms and covered plants were formed in parallel and have a common principle, but continued to evolve separately. The remnants of the first flowering plants were found in the earlyelical deposits. With the beginning of the widespread of covered plants, they have acquired a large number of advantages that distinguished them from other plants.
- The class is oneday
- The family of cereals
- The family is liley
- The class is twoday
- The family is pinkflowered
- Beaver family
- The family is nightshade
- The family is crucible
- The family is complicated
- Signs of covered plants
- Propagation, development, pollination
- The structure of covered plants
- Fruits, root and leaves of coatedseeded plants
- Functions and role (value) of flowering plants in nature
- Food flowering plants
The class is oneday
At the heart of the division of the flower (covered) plant of the plants is the sign that consists in the amount of cotyledon. Class plants of singledimensional have only one cotyledon. The main signs of monodol plants:
Almost a quarter of all flowering plants are monotonous. The most common and significant are: orchid, cereal, sedge, palm, aroid, bromelia, asparagus, onion and lily. A person eats some dowels of oneday plants (for example, garlic, asparagus and wheat). Many plants have become widespread in folk and traditional medicine, for the manufacture of fibers of fabric, for the production of paper, paint and furniture. Consider in more detail the family of cereals and lily.
The family of cereals
The cereal family includes various cereals that are eaten in food. This family is found on all continents, including in Antarctica. In nature, they acquired extremely diverse life forms. They can be either annual or perennial plants, which are represented by herbs, shrubs and trees. There are about 11 thousand varieties in total.
The stems of cereal plants are simple or branched. Can be cylindrical or flattened. Many plants have hollow internodes, and the presence of fabric is only in nodes. Such a stem is called Solomina. Leaves can be linear or lanceolate. At the place of transition of the vagina to the plate there is a special outgrowth called the tongue. The shape of this outgrowth is the main feature of cereals. The flowers are stained in a yellowish green color. They differ in small sizes and gather in inflorescences spikelets that form a ear, brush, panicle. Near the base, each spike has two spikelet scales that cover the spikelet itself. In one spikelet, it has from 2 to 5 flowers. The perianth is represented by two floral scales and films. The bickelter flower contains three stamens and pestle. Fruit grain (nut or berry).
Examples of cereals
The family is liley
The Liley family originated in China and Asia. At the moment, it is known about 610 varieties of these plants. They took root in places with a moderate and tropical climate. The main part of the family is represented by grassy perennial plants, a little less often shrubs and trees. A distinctive feature of this family is a modified underground shoot and a simple perianth. The most common decorative representatives of this family are tulips and lilies.
The longterm grasses of the Lileiny family are characterized by the presence of the rhizome and onion. Double or samesex flowers. The perianth is corrugated, but there are representatives with a cupshaped. Stamens are located in the flower, the number of which corresponds to the number of perianth leaves. There is only one pestle. The fetus is a box of three nests, sometimes the berry. The stems of the plants are juicy and straight. The petals are wellexpressed and bright.
Examples of lily
The class is twoday
The main signs of dicotyledonous plants are the following characteristic features:
Twobottom plants took a very important place in human economic activity. These include various food and fodder plants. The most common of them is potatoes, buckwheat, soy, beets. Fruit and berry crops are represented by representatives such as grapes, strawberries and apple tree. Many of the most important varieties of medicinal plants are dualsided. Consider the main families of dicotyledonous plants: pinkflowing, legumes, nightshade, cruciferous, complex.
The family is pinkflowered
This family includes plants of various life forms. They are notable for the fact that they spread on almost all continents. The largest number of these plants is in countries with a subtropical and moderate climate. Many pinkflowered plants are.
Flowers, inflorescences, fruits and leaves are very diverse in structure, depending on the type. Their distinctive feature lies in the nonstandard structure of the gynesium and colorful. The colorful can grow. Many plants of pinkflowered have flowers in which the parts surrounding the pestle grow together with bases, forming a bowl gypantia. Flowers of pinkflowered with a double fivemembered perianth and a large number of stamens, which are located in a circle in an amount of a multiple of 5. As a rule, there is one pestle, but there are plants with several pestles. The next leaves are with stuck. There is no endosperm in plant seeds. In woody plants, spikes form on the stem. Upper ovary, middle and lower. Fruits can be dots, nuts. Most often false or prefabricated. Pinkflowered plants are pollinated by insects.
An example of pinkflowered plants
Bobov family has about 20 thousand different types. It includes various herbs, shrubs and trees. Many representatives of this family have become valuable human food products. The main difference between this family is the special structure of the flower and fetus.
The flower of most legumes is represented by 5 cups and 5 petals. Inside there is one pestle and about 10 stamens. The structure of the flower itself is distinguished by bilateral symmetry. The largest petal is called a sail, two side oars, two lower ones grow together and forms a kind of boat. The pestle is located exactly inside this “boat” and surrounded by stamens. In some legumes, all 9 stamens grow together, and one remains free. In legumes, the fetus has the appearance of a dry and multiseeded bean, which has two revealed wings. Stems and leaves differ significantly depending on the type. Inflorescences can be brushes (like lupine) or head (like clover). The value of these plants is due to a high protein content.
Examples of legumes
The family is nightshade
Rasneine plants have about 3,000 species. They originated in the territory of Central and South America. There are such life forms of the perch of the nightshade as herbs, shrubs and halfbrushes. Sometimes trees. However, all nightshafts have some characteristic features that unite them.
The leaves of the plants of the family are overly and do not have adherents. They are simple and can have a dissected or whole plate. Flowers are found both correct and irregular in shape. The corolla of all nightshade and tubular. Stamens are attached to the tube itself. As a rule, their number is 5. Pestle is only one with the upper twonative plot. It contains a large number of seed begins. The flowers are doublefloor. All nightshade plants are pollinated by insects. The fruit is a berry or box. Some representatives of the family have alkaloids that are used in small doses to produce a drug.
Examples of nightshade
The family is crucible
The cruciferous family is considered the most easily identified family from the entire class of dicotyledonous plants. They received the name with the prefix “Cross” for a characteristic shape of a flower in which 4 petals and 4 cups are located. Most often the crossflowers family are represented by perennial or annual herbs. There are also shrubs and halfbrushes. It is noteworthy that the type of fetal and flower is characteristic of all 3200 species of plant plants. Crossflowers were widespread in the nonropical regions of America and Eurasia. The greatest species diversity is found in Central Asia, the Andes and the Mediterranean.
Plant flowers are doublespaced and gathered in a cystic inflorescences. The perianth is double and fourmembered. There are 6 stamens inside the flower, of which 4 are longer, and 2 shorter. There is only one pestle. The fetus is a pod or pod. Their difference lies in the fact that the length of the pod exceeds the width by almost 4 times, and in the strata 3 times. In plant seeds are from 15 to 49.5 percent of oil. Leaves are collected in a socket.
Examples of cruciferous plants
The family is complicated
The plants of the family are complexly colorful are one of the most extensive dicotyledonous plants. It includes about 32,913 different species that form 1911 clans. They spread almost throughout the Earth. Their characteristic feature is the presence of a basket inflorescence. As a rule, the inflorescence contains many small flowers that sit on a large box of inflorescences. Around the flowers there is a wrap of green leaves. It is noteworthy that it contains a large number of decorative and medicinal plants.
Family plant flowers have a double perianth with an undeveloped cup. Sometimes it is represented by bristles or hairs that create a kind of crest. The whisk consists of 5 petals fused into the tube. There are 5 stamens inside, the anthers of which are combined into the stamens, which is located around the column. There is only one pestle in the flower, which forms the fruit of the seed. The seeds of many complex plants have special devices that allow them to spread by wind. As a rule, these flyers develop from crests.
Examples of complex plants
Signs of covered plants
Coopers are one of the most numerous and common groups. They are highly adaptable to various environmental conditions. It was these plants that formed the basis of the development of ecosystems such as meadow, forest and water bodies. The composition of the covenant includes about 400 different families.
The sign of coveredweight consists in the fact that, unlike other plants that have root, leaves and stem, they have a flower. This flower is an organ of seed propagation. It is formed in a flower after fertilization of the seed and contains a supply of nutrients. The fruit is formed from the parts of the flower. Another remarkable feature of the covenant family is double fertilization. The conducting fabric of the covering plants is characterized by the presence of sieve tubes and blood vessels. Almost all plants of the family are experienced by insects.
Propagation, development, pollination
Before direct propagation, the process of pollination occurs. It involves the transfer of pollen from pollen bags of stamens to the stigmas of pestlers. Having hit the pestle, pollen begins to germinate. As a result, a pollen tube is formed, which is introduced into the tint of the stigm. The end of the pollen tube emits substances that soften the fabric of the stigmatic and the column. In the process of forming a pollen tube, a siphonogenic cell is used. As the pollen tube grows into it, a spermagenic cell passes, which is divided by mitosis with the formation of two sperms. The pollen tube moves along the pestle column and grows into the embryo bag. After penetration into the embryo bag, the tip of the pollen tube breaks, and sperm gets inside. One of the sperm is merged with an egg, forming a diploid zygote. The second sperm merges with the central cell of the embryo bag, forming a tripleoid cell, from which the seed endosperm is further formed, which provides the nutrition of the embryo. Synergies and antipodes degenerate. This process is called double fertilization. It was opened in 1898 by a botanist with.G. Navashin.
Flower reproduction scheme
After double fertilization, the seed embash of seed is formed from the egg, from the central nucleus of the embryo bag endosperm, from integuments the seed peel, from the entire sequin seed, and from the walls of the ovaries the amnassy the uniform. In general, a fruit with seeds is formed from the ovary of the pestle.
The structure of covered plants
The flower differs in a pedicel, colorful, nearstroke, stamens and pestlers. Depending on the type, some elements may be absent. Flowers that have stamens and pestles are called bisexual. Flowers, which have only a pestle, are called pestle, and if there are only stamens stamens.
The peduncle is the internodes in the flower. Flowers that do not have pedicels are called sedentary.
Colorbow represents a shortened stem of the flower. The remaining elements of the flower are on its surface.
The perianth is the sterile part of the flower or its cover. It can be either simple or double. A simple perianth can be fertile, formed from brightly painted leaves, or cupshaped, formed by green leaves. Flowers that do not have a perianth are ranked naked.
A cup is an outer part of a double perianth, which is represented by a set of cups. Most often, the cup is small in size and green. It has similarities with ordinary plant leaves, but has a simpler structure.
A whisk is the inner part of a double perianth. It has the form of a set of petals that differ in bright coloring. As a rule, the number of these petals varies. In size, the petals can be the same or different. It all depends on the type of plant. The main function of the corolla is to attract pollinators.
Fruits, root and leaves of coatedseeded plants
In the fruits of the family of covered plants, there may be a different amount of water. For this reason, they are divided into juicy and dry. If the fetus is represented by one seed, then it is called singleseeded, if a large number multiseeded. Most cereal plants have dry and singleseeded fruits. The wall wall is very tightly in contact with the peel of the seed. Multiple dry fruits are opened when ripening. Thanks to this feature, the best distribution of seeds is ensured. A fruit such as a bob characteristic of peas is opened with the help of two wings, the walls of which are attached to seeds. The pod is opened as well as bean. However, the difference lies in the presence of a partition that does not have legumes. Fruits in the form of boxes are opened in various ways. For example, in poppy holes, and for the cotton the opening of the wings.
Root is one of the main vegetative organs. Its main task is to absorb various nutrients from the soil and water. The resulting substances transmit the root to the aboveground organs. In many plants, the root is a container of all nutrients.
A sheet is a lateral escape organ. Its main function is the implementation of the process of photosynthesis. As a result, shoots on shoots are best caught by light. Many leaves of covered plants are painted green and consist of a petiole and leaf plate. The leaves that are attached to the stem with a spine are called petiole, and without it sedentary. Also the leaves are classified by living. They can be both simple and complex. Simple leaves have sheet plastic and petiole, in complex ones several leaves are attached to the petiole.
Functions and role (value) of flowering plants in nature
Coopersinweight plants consistent with the environmental conditions of various climatic zones. The evolution of various mammals, birds and insects is greatly associated with flowering plants. They are not only food for each other, but also the habitat. For example, raspberry seeds are great for bird digestion. Herbivorous animals feed on grass covering plants, and fertilize the soil with their excrement, thereby creating the conditions for the development of the same herbs. Insects that feed on pollen and nectar of flowers contribute to crosspollination of plants. However, in parallel with this, large flocks of locusts destroy large plant fields. As a result of this interaction, both replenishment and a decrease in the number of covered plants occurs.
Food flowering plants
Each plant of the covenant family has such organs such as the root, leaf, stem, flower and fetus. Root, stem and leaves are used to power the plant, so they are called the power organs. With their help, flowers and fruits can multiply and increase in size. Different elements from the soil and water act as food.