Chimpanzees (PAN) a humanoid monkey, kind of primates. Translated from one of the languages of African tribes, “like man”. Similarity to people is limited not only by external characteristics, behaviors, but also by genes: DNA coincides with us by 90%. The scientists proved that the paths of evolution between the two species dispersed only 6 million years ago.
There are two types and three subspecies of chimpanzees:
2. dwarf or bonobo.
The growth of ordinary chimpanzees is on average only 1.5 m in males and 1.3 m in females, but at the same time they are very strong, their muscles are perfectly developed. The skin is pink, and the coat is hard and dark, almost brown.
Dwarf-not much lower than his ordinary fellow, but due to less drawn muscles and visual pike, it seems small and skinny. His face is darkskinned, and his lips are large and wide. The head is covered with long black hair, which descend from the crown to the cheeks with peculiar backed backs.
Both species have a skull with pronounced tutorial arcs, a snuby nose with protruding nostrils and acute, full of sharpened teeth with a jaw. Although their skull is impressive, the brain in it occupies only part of the total volume. Thumbs, like a person, are allotted to the side this allows the beast to climb trees and use primitive tools to extract food.
The whole body of the primates is covered with dark hairs, only part of the muzzle, palms and feet remains unceremonious. Kids and adolescents also have a small lapy on their backs in the coccyx area. According to it, adults determine the approximate age of relatives, and if the bald spot is not overgrown, they are classified as cubs and accordingly relate to it with greater tenderness and care.
Like people, these monkeys have blood groups, the plasma of some of their species can be poured to people. Chimpanzees can also be distinguished from each other by patterns on fingertips: individual prints are always different.
Primates are inhabitants of Central and West Africa. The main condition is the presence of tropical forests with sufficient vegetation and the corresponding climate. Ordinary chimpanzees are found in our time in Cameroon, Guinea, Congo, Mali, Nigeria, Uganda, Rwande, Burundi, Tanzania. The habitat of the dwarfs forests between the rivers Congo and Lualab.
All the time they spend in the crowns of trees, deftly jumping from a branch to a branch, they go to the ground extremely rarely, most often on a watering. On the branches, they build their nests wide nestles from twigs and leaves.
Like people, for a comfortable and safe life of chimpanzees, you need a company. Therefore, they always live in groups that are exclusively heads in ordinary primates, and Bonobo has only females in Bonobo. The group most often consists of 25-30 individuals.
The leader-male is always the strongest and smartest representative of the community in order to maintain power in his paws, he chooses a certain circle of communication-the same strong, but more stupid brothers that are ready to protect his valuable life. The leader drives the rest of the stronger sex, who may threaten his reign, at a safe distance and holds in constant fear, after his death or illness, the older post is equal in strength to the competitor.
Samok also has its own hierarchy. More aggressive and physically developed ladies dominate the weak, control them and do not let them close to the opposite sex, they always get more food and partners for mating. Ladies-shimpanzes are considered more smart and smart, they are easier to train, can show elementary feelings for other people’s cubs and weak relatives.
Mating and reproducing the offspring of chimpanzees at any time of the year, certain conditions, except for desire, is not required for this. Pregnancy lasts up to 7.5 months. Most often, only one cub is born, in rare cases there may be multiple births.
The kids immediately after birth are weak and helpless, so they require constant maternal care and guardianship. Until they get to their feet, mothers wear them on themselves. Young animals reaches puberty only by 10 years, before that they are tightly attached to the parents, even if they have younger offspring.
Chimpanzees are considered omnivorous primates. Their diet includes both the food of plant and animal origin. They often need to eat a lot, as they lead a very mobile lifestyle and spend a lot of energy for this. It is also important for them to constantly maintain a certain supply of subcutaneous fat, it helps them survive during periods of autumn rains or drought.
Basically, these monkeys feed on fruits and berries, roots and leaves of trees. Since chimpanzees are not afraid of water and are excellent swimmers, in reservoirs they deftly catch the mollusk and small river living creatures. Not averse to eat and with a small beast, insects.
There are cases when, in the absence of another food, these primates eaten their own kind, and even fellow tribesmen.
- Chimpanzees use plant leaves as umbrellas during rains, in the form of a fan in severe heat, and even as toilet paper.
- Bonobo in the nutria of their group never solve disputes by force, for this they have another effective method mating.
- Chimpanzees can smile and make faces, they are subject to change of mood, they can be sad, show aggression or fool around.