Inhabits Europe from the Atlantic Islands and Western Europe to Central Asia in the East and most of Asia Minor and North Africa. Populations have increased in Europe since the 1980s, but currently the species is stable or tend to increase. Single, despite his small size, already in ancient times, he attracted the attention of people, especially those who were more sensitive to beauty. The bird is perfectly painted, and its singing is pure skill.
It was these characteristic features that contributed to the fact that he often found himself in captivity. There are still places where gold pobes are caught and traded by them. Bird protection organizations report that this practice is still flourishing, in particular, in Eurasia, Greece and Germany. In other European countries, aviaries with these birds are already a rare phenomenon, perhaps because this species here is under strict species protection.
Ordinary dandy (lat. Carduelis Carduelis) is a beautiful bird, which is very easy to recognize by its original plumage. During the flight of chogles, you can distinguish from other species of birds in coloring of wings, head and tail. This is not a very shy bird. It can often be seen flying from place to place, stopping on various trees, shrubs and grassy plants. Scheglv fly quickly and wavy course.
Single less sparrow, so his body length is 12.5-14 cm, and weight is from 15 to 18 g. In the field, it is almost impossible to distinguish the male from the female, only from close range can you see subtle differences. The most distinguishing feature of an adult is the karmin-red “face” (mask), which contrasts with the black top of the head and strip behind the ears and white cheeks. Overlining on the back of the chestnut-brown. Sides of the head (cheeks), throat, breasts white with a fuzzy brown strip, stomach and sacrifice white. The chipped a rather long and pointed beak of ivory color. Both sexes have similar sizes. The difference in color is difficult to notice in the field.
Young golden partridges have a slightly different plumage. Basically, they are brownish-gray with darker uneven longitudinal stripes. Red mask on the head appears only after a few months. Only wings are covered in the same way as in adults.
Chogles have strong sexual dimorphism. Males are associated with us with bright, impressive robes and beautiful singing, designed to impress a female whose appearance is usually paler than her partner. However, as it turns out, this is not a universal separation, mono- or dichromasia between males and females depends on many different factors and constantly evolves.
Among one-color species there are species with intense and dull colors- it is noted that the brightness of the color of feathers is highly dependent on the lifestyle (migrating or not), poly- or monogamy and the male participation in the departure of chicks of the form. Thus, in moderately migrating species, which exerts great pressure on single individuals in the struggle for a couple, bright colors appeared, almost indistinguishable in females and males, but differing in attractiveness from one individual to another. Another factor contributing to the disappearance of clear differences between partners is that both parents equally care about their offspring. Therefore, there is no need for one of them (usually a female) has a better ability to disguise themselves against the background of the environment, so as not to attract the attention of predators. Although there are cases when the chigles became victims of the owls or Eurasian dwarf owls, they are quite single, and the vigilance of both parents allows you to quickly detect danger and thereby raise an alarm in advance.
The most common species chewed:
Sedheaded dandy (lat. C. canaceps) general coloring without a brownish tint, lighter, especially on the top of the side.
Konoplyanka (lat. C. cannabina) a bird in which a male in a marriage outfit has a large red spot on his chest and small on the forehead. Cat’s head and neck. The back and wings of a warm brown color. Elerons blackhanded with white edges. Sides of the abdomen are brown with darker spots. The female is devoid of red, more brown.
Blackheaded dandy, or ordinary dandy (lat. C. Carduelis) is a bird with a red, white and black head and yellow stripes on the wings. In females, red on the head occupies a proportionally smaller area.
Ordinary Zelenushka (lat. C. chloris) stocky bird the size of a sparrow with a thick conical beak. Olive-green color with a yellow insert along the edges of the wings and tail. The female is more brownish-olive.
Fiery chiz. C. Cucullata)-the male is mostly dark red, with black on the head, throat, flyers and tip of the tail, as well as a whitish lower abdomen and under the tail. The female has a gray head, chest and upper body, except for red cereal and upper tail. Gray breasts with reddish sides, and the rest of the lower part, wings and tail resemble the corresponding parts of the male. Immature females are paler than adults, and males are brown, not red.
Mountain leaks (latch. C. flavirostris) size and color resemble a female hemp. In general, more hoarse-brown, especially on the front of the head and chest, very colorful on the sides. The male has a pink sacrum in the wedding period. On the wing, a wide covering strip and a white insert on the primary.
Chinese Zelenushka (lat. C. sinica)-green-brown body coloring with pink subsidiary, a bright yellow belt-shaped pattern on the wings is noticeable in flight.
Chizh (lat. C. Spinus) a male with a black hat and a throat spot and gray cheeks. The rest of the head, the neck and chest are yellow, the belly is white, with dark folds. The neck and back are greenish, dark-gun. On the black wing, two yellow stripes and the edges of the alerons. The sides of the base of the tail and the sacrum are also yellow. The female does not have a headdress and much less yellow.
American Chizh (Lat. C. tristis)-males in marriage plumage are bright yellow, with black cap, wings and tail, white sacrum and white stripes on the wings; The beak and legs are pink. The female is similar, more yellowish-olive. The male with the onset of autumn and winter becomes like a female whitish on the bottom with a yellow head.
Yellowfaced chiz. C. yarrellii)-a small bird with a body size of 10 cm, with a pale yellow abdomen, neck and cheeks, a black hat on the head and a short grayish, slightly wiped tail. Like most birds of the genus Spinus, the yellowfaced chik has black wings with a distinct yellow strip on flight feathers. The female differs from the male less intense coloring and the absence of a black cap on her head.
Pine Chizh (Lat. C. Pinus)-During the flight or mating, they have bright yellow marks on pointed wings and bifurcated tails. Their feathers on the wings are brown with white edges. The yellow strip is present in the middle wing when their wings are deployed. This yellow line indicates a hierarchical position among the cheese. During the seat, the yellow color merges with folded wings, giving yellow marks to the left and to the right of the bird. Their tail feathers are light yellow to the middle of the tail, where feathers merge into dark brown feathers with white edges.
How many live
However, the most exciting is the question of the life expectancy of these birds. It turns out that the annual mortality of chogle reaches 50%. It was found that in the wild life expectancy is only 2 years. Meanwhile, it was recorded that tamed individuals live in captivity until 19 years old.
Lifestyle and character
Single typically flocking bird. You can rarely find isolated individuals. Outside the reproduction season, these birds gather in large flocks, in which they feed. In snow winters, chigles love to use homemade feeders.
Males begin to sing when the birds are still gathering in flocks. At the end of the season, they form monogamous couples, which, however, are not too stubbornly protecting their territory, and can nest in the immediate vicinity of other pairs of their appearance, or even form free colonies consisting of several pairs. Shchegol is one of the species where the male’s ritual feeding is observed, which is considered part of the courtship and maintaining the connection between partners.
It is worth adding that these birds quickly move among the branches of trees and shrubs, from which they draw food, but quite rarely flows to the ground.
Where they live
It is found throughout Europe, with the exception of northern and central Scandinavia. In Asia, he reaches Mongolia and Saudi Arabia. Schegly is also common in North Africa and penetrate south through the Nile basin. The bird was brought to the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Azores and Madeira, as well as to South America, Australia and New Zealand. On the Pyrenee Peninsula, it is found throughout the territory.
This is a partially migrating view. The northern European populations, from Eurasia and Scandinavia, after the reproduction season move south, like some more southern populations that move to the Mediterranean areas. Thanks to ringing, it was found that in October and November, a large number of gold fins arriving at the Pyrenee Peninsula that arrive from England, Switzerland, France, Germany, and Belgium. Some of them continue to fly to Africa. In the internal areas of the peninsula there are sedentary and migratory populations that cross the Gibraltar Strait with packs. They return in the period from February to May.
Single avoids dense forest complexes. It multiplies on the edges of deciduous and mixed forests, can live in gardens, on cuts, alleys, curtains of trees, rod meadows and gardens. Most often, it is found in cultivated territories, where fields and gardens are interspersed with forest belts of the middle strip. However, outside the reproduction season, it feeds in open areas where plants that produce seeds can find.
In autumn and winter, choglov can be found on deposit lands, lands allocated for development, areas covered with ruderal vegetation, and not plowed fields (especially where the thistle and burdock grow). They feed on flocks along with other grain. When there is not enough food in this place, they move to another place, although they do not have a selected direction of movement.
What they eat
Schegly love all seeds and small insects. However, there is nothing tastier for them than weed seeds thistle or burdock. Moreover, the Latin name of this bird comes from the word Carduus, meaning a thistle. They also often eat sunflower. The seeds of the Abyssinian oil raid effectively attract them to garden feeders.
Schegly prefer lowlands, alleys and fruit gardens, as well as parks. They build their nests in high thuja and junipers, as well as in the crowns of old acacia or chestnut trees in the last areas of long branches, near the fork. It is believed that the designs created by these birds are one of the most intricate. Outside, they cover their nests with a bright lichen, and inside fur, bristles and gentle feathers.
In places with optimal conditions, there can be so many nests next to each other that their community is perceived as a free colony. Outside the reproduction season, chogles mate flocks and are looking for food together. Such meetings most often occur in acacia alleys among meadows and pastures.
These birds multiply twice a year from midMay to early July. The male, although it does not leave it throughout the process, usually does not provide assistance until the female lay down and sits out the eggs. Then he takes on the role of her personal waiter. Feeding a comrade is an important part of courtship and strengthens the connection between birds. After about two weeks, 4-5 chicks are usually hatched from bluish eggs with brown spots of eggs, which both parents care about. In the early days of life, young animals feeds mainly with insects, but over time they are replaced exclusively by seeds. Two more weeks will pass before the chicks leave the nest, and several months before they become similar to their parents-by this time their plumage will become mainly brownish-gray with darker uneven longitudinal stripes. A pair of chiglov probably produces from two to three broods per year, but this compensates for a short life expectancy.
Natural enemies in nature
Schegly, like other small birds, can become a victim of predators such as Tounji, barn owls and eared owls. In addition, the danger to the colorful species of chogle is a person. Despite the ban on the capture of Scheglov in many civilized countries, in some countries it is still sold for home content.
A few interesting facts about the chiglings: