Conditions in the ocean and development of sea ice

It is well known that ice formation begins provided that the outflow of heat into the atmosphere from the surface of the reservoir exceeds its intake from the deep layers. The heat deficiency formed in this case is compensated by the heat of crystallization when the water transition from a liquid state to a solid. Obviously, everywhere where the annual heat loss of the ocean exceed the number of solar energy coming into it, in winter the necessary prerequisites for the formation of sea ice are created. The socalled areas of energy flow are met by these conditions, which cover not only the polar areas, but also significant parts of the moderate latitudes in both hemispheres.

However, the prerequisites for the formation of sea ice are not in all cases available in the areas of the flow of energy. It is enough to indicate, for example, to the North European basin, which is completely located in the energy flow, but not freezing for most. The reason for this is that in the energy exchange with the atmosphere, in addition to the heat accumulated annually in this pool, adverse heat, concentrated below the active layer and continuously replenished with currents, takes part. When this heat receives unhindered access to the surface of the ocean, the ice is not formed. Когда же данное условие не соблюдается и вынос адвективного тепла невозможен или ослаблен настолько, что не в состоянии полностью компенсировать отток тепла в атмосферу, их образование становится неизбежным. In other words, the existence of an ice or freefree regime in the areas of the burn of energy depends on the degree of participation of advection heat in energy exchange with the atmosphere.

The role that advective heat plays in maintaining the freezing regime in the areas of the energy of energy makes it necessary to clarify the factors that regulate its transfer to the ocean surface. Indeed, in many cases, the currents that carry heat in the direction of the poles spread to the depths and do not have direct contact with the atmosphere.

Vertical heat transfer in the ocean is carried out, as you know, by mixing. Its intensity depends on the stability of the water layers, and the latter in the polar regions mainly on the vertical gradient of salinity. When this gradient is significant, vertical heat transfer is weakened. Glaclin is characterized by large vertical gradients of salinity, which is formed near the surface of the ocean on the border of the tested polar and lifting their salty waters. Dramatically weakening the vertical exchange, Galklin acts as a film filming for flows to the surface of the ocean from below. As a result, the flow of heat from water may not be able to compensate for its outflow from the surface to the atmosphere and the formation of ice becomes inevitable. Thus, the formation of Galklin creates in the deep ocean the conditions for the formation of ice and the transition to the ice regime, and its degeneration for the transition to the freezer regime.

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