Coniferous this is a large group of tarry, shishkonosa trees and shrubs. According to biological classification, coniferous trees make up the Confefirales squad from a group of gymnosperms in which seeds do not give color. There are 7 coniferous families, which are divided into 67 groups called childbirth, they are divided into more than 600 species.
Coniferous trees have cones, and their foliage does not fall off all year round. However, some of them, such as TIS, are fleshy and looks like a fruit. Other plants, such as cypress and juniper, grow cones that resemble berries, and not what is considered a “bump”.
The area of coniferous plants is extensive. There are evergreen trees in:
Coniferous forests grow better where a long winter with an average or high annual amount of precipitation. North Eurasian coniferous forest is called a taiga, or boreal forest. Both terms describe an evergreen forest with numerous lakes, swamps and rivers. Coniferous forests also cover mountains in many parts of the world.
Types of coniferous trees
This is a hardy Mediterranean, stunted pine with a dark green, shiny needle foliage, which appears from tarry buds. Grows in the form of a dense mound-shara with thick needles. The plant produces oval dark brown cones about 5 cm long, and they grow vertically upwards, do not tolerate extreme temperatures or dry conditions.
The best takes place:
Dwarf is a slowly growing dwarf mountain pine, which adds charm and exotic to the garden. Grows in 10 years in a height of 30-60 cm and in width 90 cm.
Width is greater than in height. Pine pussy of pugs from the mountains of central and southern Europe from Spain to the Balkans. Pine needles from medium-green to dark green color, needles acquires a yellowish tint in winter. Oval or conical cones, matte-brown, scaly bark brown-gray.
The dwarf variety with a rounded shape over time grows to 90 cm high, but grows slowly.
Pug flourishes in the full sun in humid, welldrained loams and on sandy soils, we suffer to clay. Avoid poorly drained wet soils. Plants prefer a cool summer climate.
The dwarf evergated mountain pine of magnificent beauty at any time of the year forms a dense, spherical crown with a flattened top. The needles are pale yellow-green in spring and summer, and in winter it acquires a rich golden color. The officer is extremely slowly growing, which adds about 2.5 cm per year, grows up to 90 cm in height and width after 10 years.
It grows best in the full sun in welldrained:
Pine Ophir is tolerant of drought. Ideal plant for gardens, city parks and mountaineering.
A tree with a large straightforward barrel, with a wide, open crown. A narrow or wide pyramidal crown of young trees is flattened over time, the lower branches disappear.
The bark of young yellow pines is blackish or dark red brown and furrowed, in mature trees from yellow-brown to a reddish tint, cleaved into scaly records with deep uneven cracks. Fat bark makes a pine tree resistant to forest fires.
Dark gray-green, olive or yellow-green needles growing three, rarely two or five needles. Reddish-brown or brown flakes of cones have prickly tips.
The tree reaches a height of 35 m, the diameter of the barrel up to 1.8 m at the chest height. A thick conical crown in young plants with age becomes wide and deeply convex.
Pale brown or gray-brown. Branches are yellow or brownish-yellow, thick and densely pubescent. Konic leaf buds of red-brown.
The needles carry 5 needles onto the bundle, they are slightly curved and almost triangular in cross section. The needles are hard, dark green with mouths on external faces, 6-11 cm long, 0.5-1.7 mm thick.
Cedar pine grows well on wet swamp and heavy clay soils.
The pine is whiteskinned
Subalpian tree, grows in:
Outwardly looks like a coniferous pine tree, but the bumps are others. The needles grow in bundles of 5 needles, from 3 to 9 cm long, they are hard, slightly curved, usually bluish-green, stick together to the ends of the branches.
Seed cones of ovoid or almost round shape, from 3 to 8 cm long and grow at right angles to the branch. Bark is thin, smooth and chalk-white on young trunks. When the tree is aging, the bark gets fat and forms narrow brown scaly records.
Sosna Weimutov (American)
Pine with massive, horizontal, asymmetric branches with lush, blue-green needles.
In nature, it grows from 30 to 35 m in a height, a barrel with a diameter of 1 to 1.5 m, a crown on a diameter of 15 to 20 m. In the landscape landscape, decorative trees are not higher than 25 m, suitable for parks and summer cottages.
The seedling is growing rapidly, with age, development slows down. Young trees are pyramidal, tiers of horizontal branches and gray bark give a mature tree an impressive, attractive shape. This is one of the pines that plants as a hedge, mature specimens retain the lower branches, and soft needles make the barrier beautiful, and not frightening.
Pine with thin, soft, blue-green needles. The growth rate is slow. After about 10 years, the plant will grow to about 1 m in height. Prefer the sunny side and moderately fertile soil. Young pines of the pyramidal shape, but with age acquire a “sloppy” look. The cones are large.
This is an extremely beautiful landscape tree, landscape designers consider it the best decorative coniferous plant that makes an unforgettable impression. Pine Edel is suitable for a suburban area, in city gardens is susceptible to pollution and is damaged by salt. In winter, dies from ice storms.
Oil pine “Little Curules”
Tiny, curly needles of blue-green color grow on a dwarf, oval, in the shape of a ball tree. This is a unique addition to a small landscape garden.
The dwarf selection of the eastern white pine in his youth has a beautiful spherical shape, with age becomes a broadpyramidal. The needles are twisted a very attractive feature for designers. After 10 years of growth, a mature sample has a size of 1.5 m in height and 1 m in width, the annual growth rate is 10 15 cm.
It develops better in the sun with medium humidity, on welldrained soils. Tolerant pine to a wide range of soil conditions.
A fastgrowing, high, straight, triangular shape, with a pointed crown, the tree reaches 40 m in height and lives up to 1000 years. The bark of young specimens is copper-gray-brown and looks smooth, but a rough-chering. Mature trees (older than 80 years) have a dark purple-brown bark with cracks and small plates. Orange-brown branches, furrier and bald.
Fourlegged needles, pointed, with thin white specks and saturated sweet smell. Stamens in the spring become red and yellow. Women’s flowers are red and oval, grow vertically on top.
Grows up to 30 m in height. Barrel with a diameter of about 1.5 meters. A little drooping, thin, yellow-green, slightly glossy branches make spruce similar to the pyramid. The needles are dull green, short 10-18 mm, corner in cross section. Pine cones of cylindrical shape, 6 8 cm in length. When the cones are immature, they are purple. When they ripen, brown.
Siberian spruce grows in Boreal forests of Siberia. Snow falls from the conical crown, which prevents the loss of branches. Narrow needles reduce the surface of moisture loss. Thick wax coating waterproof, protects the needles from winds. The dark green color of the needles absorbs solar heat as much as possible.
The needles are short and soft, glossy, dark green, below silver. Garden areas and roadsides are decorated with trees, planted one or tight. Compact spruce, about 1.5 m in the widest place, tall, slender, “majestic” in adulthood. An extremely hardy and relatively undemanding plant if it grows in a zone with a cool summer climate. It requires sunlight for growth, even if cold, but also does not die in partial shade, prefers the soil from average to slightly sour, well drained. Cones in early summer light greenish-gray, copper-light at the end of the season.
Silver spruce (prickly)
Direct tree with a similar spide with a crown, reaches 50 m in height and 1 m in diameter in adulthood. The lower branches fall to the ground.
The needles are foursided and acute, but not particularly tough. Color-deep bluish-green with two silver stripes on the upper and lower surfaces. The needles on the branches are located in all directions.
Seed cones from yellow to purple-brown color hang from the upper branches. Their thin seed scales narrow at both ends and have a torn external edge. Pollen cones are most often from yellow to purple-brown shade.
The bark is loose, scaly, from reddish-brown to gray.
Noticeable at a distance due to conical shape, the base is wider than the crown. In dense stands, the lower branches of firs are absent or do not have needles, weak sunlight affects the shape of a tree.
The needles are flat, flexible and not acute at the tips. White lines from a series of small dots are noticeable on the inverted needle. The ends of the upper surfaces of the needles are also painted in white.
Male and female cones grow on the same tree near the top, although female cones are located above in the crown. Mature cones in length from 4 to 14 cm and stand right on the branch.
Caucasian fir of Nordman
Will grow to 60 m in height, the diameter of the barrel up to 2 m at the chest height. In the reserves of the Western Caucasus, some specimens in a height of 78 m and even 80 m, which makes Nordman’s fir with the highest trees in Europe.
Cortex of gray-brown color, with smooth texture and resin bags.
The top of the needles glossy-dark green, from below two blue-white stripes. The tip is usually dumb, but sometimes slightly jagged, especially on the shoots of young trees.
Nordman’s fir is one of the species grown in nurseries for the New Year. Needles are not sharp and do not fall quickly when the tree dries. It is also a popular decorative tree for parks and gardens.
Grows 40-50 m, rarely-60 m in height, a direct trunk diameter 1.5 m at the chest height.
Gray bark with scaly texture. The pyramidal crown is flattened with age. Branches groove, pale brown or dull-gray with black-skinned pubescence. Ovoid leaf buds, without resin or slightly resin.
Needle and flattened needles, dimensions:
From above is painted in a glossy dark green color, below two greenish-white strips of mouth. The tips are usually slightly jagged.
Greenish cones when young, dark brown when they ripen.
Will grow 9-18 m in height, trunk diameter 1-2 m at chest level.
Young bark at young fir:
With the aging of a tree:
The branches are grooved, slightly pubescent, shiny gray or yellowish-red, with an age of purple. The kidneys are ovate, from chestnut to red with whitish resin.
Polts cones of spherical and ovate-shaped, with red-yellow or greenish color on a purple-brown background. The seed cones are widely rounded, with stupid peaks, first blue-gray, and then dark purple with white resin spots.
Grows 14-20 m in height, rarely up to 27 m, a narrow crown, conical.
Bark of young trees:
It is painted from above in dark green, with small mouths near the tips with small incisions, two white stripes of mouth below. Needles are located in a spiral on a branch.
Seed cones are vertically laid, painted in dark purple color, when ripening they become brown and open to release winged seeds in September.
Grows 20–45 m in height and endemic for:
Little girl is one of the dominant plants in the huge boreal forests of Eurasia and Canada.
The shoots are dimorphic, with growth are divided into:
Needles needle and thin, 2 5 cm in length and 1 mm in width. The needles are located one by one, in a spiral on long shoots and in the form of dense clusters from 20 to 50 needles on short shoots. The needles turn yellow and falls in late autumn, leaving the trees bare in winter.
Trees from medium to large size, 10 60 m in height, with a conical crown, irregular shape of the crown in some Asian species of Tsuga. Shoots drop to the ground. Cark is scaly and deeply furry, color from gray to brown. The flattened branches grow horizontally from the barrel, the tips lean down. Young twigs, as well as the distal parts of the stem flexible.
Winter buds are ovate or spherical, rounded and not tarry at the top. The needles are flattened, thin, in length 5 35 mm and 1 3 mm in width, needles grow separately in a spiral on a branch. When grinding the needles smells like pain, but not poisonous, unlike a therapeutic plant.
Reaches 35 m in height. The needles are flat, needle, 1.5-7 cm long and 2-4 mm wide. The cones are straight, 6-22 cm long, ripen about 6-8 months after pollination.
This is a truly attractive evergreen tree in a natural habitat. A rare type of endemic for:
Keteleheria is at risk of disappearance, and guarded areas have been created to protect the species.
Cortex is grayish-brown, longitudinal, peeling, exfoliated. The branches are reddish or brownish-red, initially pubescent, brown and naked after 2 or 3 years.
3-6 m in height, the barrel is rough, the bark is reddish-brown. Side flat shoots grow in only one plane. Know-shaped needles are 1-10 mm in length, with the exception of young seedlings, they have for the first year needles grow. The needles are located alternating, intersecting at right angles in pairs, four rows along the branches.
Pollen cones are small, invisible and located at the tips of the twigs. Seed cones are also inconspicuous at first, but grow 1-2 cm in length and ripen at the age of 6 to 8 months. They have from 6 to 12 overlapping thin leathery scales, each of which hides from 1 to 2 small seeds with a pair of narrow side wings.
The juniper is multiple
The barrel with a soft, silver bark is inclined and thickened at the base. The crown is narrow, compact, columnar, sometimes wide and irregular in shape. Juniper multiple pyramidal at a young age, in a mature form, quite diverse.
Fragrant, scaly needles with oil gland tightly pressed to round or quadrangular twigs, rough and small, acute, her color: her color:
All shades of needles are brown in winter. Yuvenal needles needle. Mature needles have an awl shape, distributed and are located in pairs or three.
Pale blue fruits grow on female plants.
It grows in forests on deep, welldrained soils in warm and wet conditions, intolerant of bad soils and cold, dry climate.
Reaches 70 m in height, trunk girth 4 m at chest level. Red-brown bark, peeling vertical stripes. The needles are located in a spiral, 0.5-1 cm long.
Spherical seeds are spherical cones with a diameter of 1-2 cm and consist of approximately 20-40 seed scales.
Plants become more beautiful as they grow old. When they are young, have the shape of a pyramid, then the crowns open, forming a narrow oval. The trunk is straight and coneshaped, spreading branches fall to the ground as the tree develops.
A densely branched, slowly growing evergreen tree, which turns into a shrub on poor soil, but usually grows up to 5-20 m or rarely up to 27 m. Trunk girth 30 100 cm, rarely up to 170 cm at chest level.
The bark is reddish-brown, fibrous, exfoliated by narrow stripes.
The needles consist of two types of needles:
The needles are located in opposite pairs intersecting at right angles or occasionally in mutovs for three. Juvenile needles grow on young plants up to 3 years old and on the shoots of adult trees, usually in the shade.
Shrub (rarely small wood) 2-10 m high (rarely up to 15 m), the crown is creeping or unevenly conical shape. This type of dioecious, pollen and seed cones are formed on individual plants, but sometimes oneday.
Puff and dark brown bark. The needles are wide and needle, 3-9 mm long, located in six rows in the alternating mutates of three needles, dull blue-green color.
Polts cones 3 4 mm long, dump the pollen from the end of winter until the beginning of spring. Sedens of 4–9 mm cones are similar to berries of spherical or ovoid, their diameter is 4-6 mm, painted in glossy black and contain one seed, ripen 18 months after pollination.
The straight trunk grows by 20-30 m. The bark is thin, smooth and gray for a long time, with age it becomes gray-brown and longitudinally furious.
The shoots are radiated in all directions, their diameter is about 1 mm, the shape is round or quadrangular.
Pollen cones appear in early spring. Hanging seed cones grow on a short shiny cut, brown or gray, spherical or elliptical shape.
Cones open in September. After loss of seeds, the bump remains on the tree for several years.
The incomparable texture and intensity of color make cypressers a valuable plant for:
Fanshaped branches hold long, soft needles resembling filigree lace or ferns. The rising branches of the cypress, look like Japanese painting decorated with suspended branches. Color scheme from blue-gray, dark green to gold. Wet, slightly acidic soil is perfect, shrubs do not flourish in hot, dry and windy conditions.
In open areas, cypressers grow to the full size, dwarf species are grown in containers or mountaineering.
Small, medium trees or large shrubs grow 5–25 m high. The needles are evergreen and scaly, the seedlings are similar to needles. The needles are located in 6 rows along the twigs, in the alternating mutovs of three.
Men’s cones are small 3-6 mm and are located on the tips of the twigs. Women’s begins to grow just as imperceptibly, ripen after 18–20 months to 1-3 cm in length and width. Form from spherical to eggshaped, with 6 overlapping thick woody scales. Cones remain closed for many years, open only after the forest fire is scorched. Then the released seeds germinate on scorched ground.
Evergreen, mainly dioecious, coniferous tree, which reaches a height of 10-20 m, sometimes up to 40 m in height with a barrel up to 4 m in diameter at the chest height. The crown is usually pyramidal, with age it becomes wrong, but many cultural forms of berry TIS are very different from this rule.
Subtle bark, scaly, brown. The needles are flat, located in a spiral, dark green color.
Pollen cones have a spherical shape. Seed cones consist of one seed surrounded by a soft bright red peel. The fetus ripens 6-9 months after pollination, and the seeds are carried by birds.
Small/medium evergreen shrub/tree, 5-20 m high, rarely up to 25 m. The needles are located in a spiral on shoots, twisted at the base, grows in two flat rows, solid texture and with a sharp tip.
Torreya oneday or dioecious. In oneday, male and female cones grow on different branches. Polts cones are located in the line along the bottom of the shoot. Seed cones (female fruits) are single or in groups of 2-8 on a short stem. At first they are small, ripen 18 months after pollination to a bone fruit with one large, similar to a walnut with a seed surrounded by a fleshy coating, painted in a green or purple color in complete maturity.
Trees with large trunks without branching under the crown. Young trees of conical shape, the crown is rounded, loses its shape as it matures. Smooth bark, from light gray to gray-brown color. Incorrect scales, thicken on old trees. The structure of the branches is horizontal, with growth they are inclined down. The lower branches leave round scars when they are separated from the barrel.
Juvenile leaves are larger than in adult trees, sharp, appearance ovoid or lanceolate. The leaves of mature trees are elliptical or linear, leathery and thick. Young leaves are copper-red, contrast with green or grayish-green foliage of the previous season.
Large tree with a massive vertical barrel with a height of 30–80 m. Horizontal branches grow in the form of mutations and are covered with leathery, hard and needle leaves. In some types of araucaria, the leaves are narrow, awllike and lanceolate, barely overlap each other, in others are wide, flat and widely blocked.
Araucaria dioecious, male and female cones grow on separate trees, although some copies of oneday or change the floor over time. Women’s cones:
Cones contain 80-200 large edible seeds similar to cedar nuts.
Grows 60 100 m in height. Trunk:
The crown is conical and monopodial at a young age, becomes narrowly conical, irregular in shape and is revealed with age. Red-brown bark, with a thick, hard and fibrous texture, up to 35 cm thick, inside the brown brown.
Needles in a length of 1-30 mm, usually with mouths on both surfaces. Pollen cones from almost spherical to ovoid shape, 2 5 mm in size. Seed cones in a length of 12-35 mm, elliptical and reddish-brown, with many flat, pointed scales.
Signs and features of coniferous trees
Some coniferous plants are similar to bushes, others grow tall, for example, giant sequoia.
Signs of coniferous trees, they:
These trees are usually evergreen, which means that they do not dump all the needles at once and continuously photosynthetics.
The leaves of most coniferous trees resemble needles. Trees save needles for 2-3 years and do not drop every year. Evergency plants are constantly involved in photosynthesis, which increases the need for water. Tightly closing the mouths and wax coating reduce moisture loss. The structure of acupuncture foliage reduces the resistance of air flows and slows down evaporation, and densely located needles protect living organisms living within the growth of coniferous trees: insects, mushrooms and small plants.
Features of the reproduction of coniferous trees
Reproduction of coniferous trees simply compared to coatedseeded. Pollen, which is produced in men’s cones, is transferred by the wind, falls on female cones on another tree and fertilizes them.
After fertilization in female cones, seeds develop. It takes up to two years to mature the seeds, after which the cones will fall to the ground, the seeds will be released.
What is the difference between coniferous trees from deciduous
Type of leaves and methods of seed production are distinguished by deciduous and coniferous stands. Little tree when it loses the leaves in one of the seasons. The trees in which the leaves fall, especially in the fall, and they stand naked in winter, are called deciduous. Although they no longer have a green cover, these trees are still alive.
Seasonal change of foliage
The leaves of deciduous trees change color, during the leaf fall become reddish, yellowish or slightly orange. These trees are also attributed to deciduous breeds with solid barrel, and in coniferous plants soft wood.
In coniferous trees, the cover does not fall in the fall or winter, and plants carry seeds in structures called cones. Therefore, they are gymnosperms (have naked seeds), and deciduous plants are covered (the fetus covers the seeds). In addition, most coniferous trees abound in regions with a colder climate.
Diseases and pests
Evergreen and deciduous trees suffer from diseases and insects of pests, but air pollution with ash and other toxic substances causes more damage to coniferous trees, and not deciduous.
Deciduous plantations grow in width and wide open leaves to absorb sunlight. They are more rounded than coniferous trees that have the shape of a cone and grow up, not in breadth, and acquire a triangular shape.
Why coniferous trees do not freeze in winter
The narrow conical coniferous tree does not accumulate snow, the branches do not freeze in the climate with a short summer, length and harsh winter.
Help snow easily slipping:
Reduces transpiration and controls the loss of moisture in frosty weather:
Needles, as a rule, dark green, absorbs winter sunlight, which is weak in high latitudes.
Coniferous trees are mostly evergreen, the process of production of nutrients resumes as soon as warm favorable weather returns in the spring.
Interesting facts about coniferous plants
Coniferous plants are all colors of the rainbow, and not just green, the needles are painted in red, bronze, yellow or even blue.
The color of the habitat is influenced by the temperature of the environment, for example, the rangold thuja yellow-red in the summer and turns into bronze winter, and the Japanese Eleans Cryptomeria is greenish-red in the warm season and becomes bronze-red in the cold.
Coniferous plants are found in different sizes, starting with a 30-centimeter juniper of an ordinary compacta variety, and ending with 125-meter sequoia, which are the highest and larger trees in the world, grow in California.
Coniferous plants acquire different forms, for example:
Conifers have two types of foliage: needle and scaly. The juniper has a needleshaped junction, adult foliage scaly (eventually it changes from needles to scales).
Coniferous trees protect themselves from fungal infection and infection with insects, since they can distinguish special poisonous for microorganisms and arthropods.