Now in many countries of the world, construction is actively carried out, not only residential, but commercial and industrial facilities. Increasing construction volumes, respectively, increases the number of construction waste. To control its number, it is necessary to dispose of this category of garbage or update the processing and its secondary use.
Classification of construction waste
The following categories are distinguished at construction sites:
These types of waste appear at different stages of the construction process. In addition, garbage is classified by materials:
Processing and disposal methods
In various countries, construction waste is disposed of or processed for secondary use. Materials do not always bring in the initial state. Depending on the product, it can be used to obtain other resources. For example, iron reinforcement, fragmented concrete, is obtained from reinforced concrete, which is useful in further stages of construction.
From everything that contains bitumen, it is possible to get bitumen-polymer mastic, bitumen powder, a mass with minerals and bitumen. Subsequently, these elements are widely used in the construction of roads and to create insulating elements.
Previously, special equipment collected waste from construction sites, took it to landfills and disposed of. For this, excavators were used, who crushed and leveled waste, and in the future another garbage was dumped to them. Now disposal is carried out using modern equipment. For crushing the blocks, hydraulic scissors or a machine with a hammer are used. After that, a crushing installation is used, which divides the elements into the desired fractions.
Since every year it becomes more and more difficult to destroy construction waste, they often process them:
Industry development in different countries
In the countries of North America and Europe, the cost of emission of construction waste is much higher than its disposal. This motivates construction companies not to accumulate waste at landfills, but to use them to obtain secondary raw materials. In the future, the use of these materials will significantly reduce the budget, because their cost is lower than new building materials.
Thanks to this, in Sweden, Holland and Denmark, 90% of the garbage is processed from construction. In Germany, the authorities banned the warehous of garbage at the training grounds. This made it possible to find the use of recycled waste. A significant part of the construction waste is returned to the construction industry.
Secondary use is a real way to solve the problem of construction waste. When demolishing structures, clay, gravel, sand, crushed bricks are used for drainage systems and aligning various surfaces. These materials can be crushed into different fractions. They are also used for the manufacture of concrete. Depending on the state of structures, they can be used to equalize roads. Especially such processing of materials is relevant for countries in which there are few quarries for the extraction of stone.
When demolishing houses, asphalt coating is often removed. In the future, it is used for the manufacture of new roads, like coating, soot, embankments and pillows.
The expediency of the secondary use of waste is as follows:
Rules for the treatment of construction garbage
In Eurasia, there is a regulation of construction waste management. It helps to ensure environmental safety and protects the natural environment from the harmful effects of garbage. For this, waste management is kept:
How to handle all categories of materials should know not only construction companies, but also ordinary people who are engaged in repairs and construction. The ecology of our planet depends on the disposal of construction waste, so their number must be reduced and, if possible, use a second time.