Crazy (lat. Sitta Europaea) is a small bird that lives in almost all of Europe, Asia Minor and some areas of Asia with a temperate climate before Japan inclusive. In Eurasia, it is found in the middle lane and forests of Siberia. It inhabit free and mixed deciduous old forests, parks with an oak or beech, near open places and on the outskirts of cities.
This is an extremely mobile bird. He can move around the trunk, directing his head to the ground. And his hollow with partially walled inlets and “plastered” sections of the walls are admired by ornithologists around the world.
Couplement a sparrow look living in the temperate belt of the Northern Hemisphere. Found in habitats covered with mature trees.
Since the tops live in Europe and Asia, more than 20 of their subspecies were determined. The difference was made on the basis of geographical position and physical differences. They are mainly combined into three groups: Caesia, Europaea and Senesis. Caesia covers Europe, North Africa and the Middle East and has brown breasts and white throat. Scandinavian, Russian and East Asian regions are populated by the Europaea group, which is distinguished by white breasts. And finally, in the south and east of China, the group of sinensis lives in Taiwan.
Crazy-a miniature bird, weighing only 17-28 grams and only 14 cm long. In most species, the upper body, wings and tail of an adult male have a bluish-gray shade. The subsidiary has a colorful shade with a brownish-white tint. Flaw feathers are dark gray-brown. Some subspecies have a drilling rod with brownish-white sides and abdomen, in others with a white spot at the abdomen. Gray opening complement black basic covers. Other signs include dark yellow-brown, brown or dark gray legs and feet.
Marking on the head is amazing. Fool and crown blue-gray, and dark brown eyes peek out from under a strong dark gray beak. Along the suprajaw, from the upper jaw, through the eyes and to the sides of the back of the head, a black eye strip passes. The lower side of the neck is brownish-white, and the cheeks and chin are white.
The appearance of the female is very similar to the male, but the shades of her coloring are not as bright as the male. Unsuzable European slide looks like an adult female, but the color of its feathers is dull.
note! Average body length: about 14 cm, wingspan: about 23-27 cm, body weight: about 20 g.
Types of content
All the tops belong to the family: Sittidae and genus: Sitta. All species are known for their ability to climb the trees face down and cling to the lower sides of the branches. Due to their favorite way, they got their name to be moved through trees and plastered walls. And his habit of breaking and eating nuts and other seeds of trees, especially in the fall, as well as put a large product into the gap, and then tear it with its strong beaks gave this group the English name “Nuthatch”.
Below is a list of the most popular types of ups
Creeper creep (lat. Sitta Europaea)-a guarded bird with a beautiful bluish-gray color from above and white-brown from below. Creeping can walk along the trees upside down. Иногда поползень стучит по дереву клювом, как дятел.
Blackheaded slide (lat. Sitta Canadensis) Bird of the Contraznev family. The upper part of the head and the mask above the eyes are black, the rest of the head is white. The upper part is painted in the color of the slate, the lower in orange.
Carolinsky slide (lat. Sitta Carolinensis) the type of birds of the Contraznev family, gray from above, with darker spots and the dark upper part of the head. The rest of the head is white, the chest is also white. The belly is grayish-red.
Brownbreasted slide (lat. Sitta Castanea) a type of bird of the Contraznev family. The upper part is gray-blue, the lower is brown. The throat is white, white passes into the strip on the sides of the head. A black mask is approaching the eye.
Redbreasted slide (lat. Sitta Frontalis) a type of bird of the Contraznev family. The upper part is bluish, the lower part is whitish to the hypochondrium. The forehead is black. The beak is red.
Small rocking (lat. Sitta neumayer) a type of bird of the Contraznev family. The plumage is grayish-blue on top, whitish from the bottom and rusty on the belly.
Turkish creep (lat. Sitta Krueperi) a type of bird of the Contraznev family. The top is bluish, the bottom is whitish, grayish with rusty breast and pigmentation on the belly and sinking covers.
How many live
It is believed that both in nature and in captivity, they live for 10-11 years, which is quite a lot for such a bird. When maintaining the house, creep quickly gets used to a person, becoming completely manual. Communication with him gives an incredible pleasure. The bird ridiculously runs around the arms, shoulders, head and clothes, trying to find a treat in pockets and folds.
Lifestyle and character
Social organization of content is monogamous by nature. These couples are quite single. Only 3-5 pairs live in 10 acres in 10 acres. Although they are not suitable for life as a domestic animal, they often visit gardens, and specially designed bird feeders. The tops are not dangerous and occupy a low place in the hierarchy of the food chain.
Most of these energetic birds lead a single lifestyle, only occasionally united into the fodder flocks of other small birds. North American regulations are several more pack than European; European tops tend to protect their territories all year round. Most species of this tiny bird do not migrate.
In winter, they often wander in small mixed flocks. One of the explanations of these flocks is that birds receive protection against predators due to the vigilance of other birds.
This species is very vocal and relies on the contact callsigns to account for its companions. He makes a number of sounds that have different functions. Piercing “Sirrrr” is used as an alarm signal. Other callsigns include the chirps to express excitement, and a mixture of the callsigns to make a whole bird song.
These birds have a high speed of beating wings. The size of the wings is 22.5-27 cm. Although there is no accurate assessment of its speed, we can assume that these birds are very agile and can fly well. This can be evaluated by paying attention to how they fly into their nest covered with dirt and do not miss it. Observations of insects in flight were also made, which is an incredible feat for a bird of this size. In addition, due to the small tail size, it cannot use it for equilibrium. The tops are constant, and most young individuals settle within 10 km from their place of birth.
Where they live
They inhabit many forests in Europe, but does not meet in Scandinavia, Ireland and Scotland. Clushes are also found in Asia as in Europe, it does not occur in the very cold parts of the continent.
Several subspecies of this bird can be called depending on the habitat. Separation is debatable, but you can confidently highlight three subspecies.
Relief a bird that is also found in Eurasia. It is classified as a moderately numerous nesting bird, and appears in a variety of places in our country. It can be found in parks, in large trees, in the alleys of old trees. Relodes also prefers loose mixed and deciduous forests, but avoids very thick forests.
He builds nests mainly in the old nests of woodpeckers, less often in nesting boxes. He never breaks his own hollows, and those that captivates improves, including by reducing the input hole, which makes it difficult to access predators.
What they eat
The most common courtyards are the whitebreasted and redchested cuts. Other types of tops are found in specialized habitats, brownheaded cuts live in the deep south, and dwarf cuttles in Western forests.
The main source of food for the tops are insects. Birds are looking for hidden goodies in the bark and cracks, such as beetles, spiders, ants and caterpillars, when they crawl around the trunks of trees. Reliefs are also visited by bird feeders, especially if you have a lot of trees in your yard that they can use as feed and shelter. Fill your feeders with their favorite feeds, and you will be on the way to attracting the tops.
Interesting fact: cuts are not only looking for food in the cracks, but also hide it in them. They stick seeds or insects in the holes in the trees and deftly cover their caches with lichens, moss or pieces of bark. Clushes return to the hidden stern and use it like food to survive the winter.
It is interesting! The method of feeding feed is made up to woody frogs, foods, woodpeckers and wood udoda. Like them, crawling is looking for food under the bark and in its folds.
But the climbing of the bark is far from the only way to search for food: the cuts periodically fly down to examine the forest litter and the ground. Having finished nesting, they fly away from their native fodder plots, adjacent to the nomadic birds.
Clushes are monogamous birds, and couples often remain together throughout the year. Sometimes they remain together until their comrade dies or disappears. The reproduction season often begins in early May June, and nests are built in the hollows of trees or abandoned burrows of woodpeckers. These birds also usually stay at an altitude of 5-20 meters above the ground.
If the hole they found is slightly not enough, the birds can expand it. But they never dig a hole completely. As soon as the place is chosen, females build a nest. Before building a nest, females stuff the nesting cavity with fur, bark and dirt. Then they use small grass, thin bark, feathers and other soft materials to create a nest in the shape of a bowl.
Females lay two masonry of 4-13 white eggs with red or yellow marks. Depending on the species, the size of the egg varies, and these eggs are forced for 12-18 days with both a male and a female or only a female. The chicks take 21-27 days to hatch. Young chicks feed both males and females. Two North American species-brown-headed content (Sitta Pusilla) and Pygmea (Sitta Pygmaea)-helping males help parents, feeding their brothers and sisters. Eggs of white-breasted creeps have dimensions about 1.8-2 cm in length and 1.5 cm in width.
Carefish chicks develop more slowly than other sparrow birds, and stand on the wing after 18-25 days. Having flew out of the nest, the chicks do not leave their parents immediately, but after 1-3 weeks.
Natural enemies in nature
The tops have many natural enemies among birds of prey and mammals. Hawks, owls and martens hunt adult birds. The same owls and martens, as well as proteins, crows and soyrs threaten chicks and masonry.
If the hollow is too large, the female is the lift plugs it with clay, leaving the hole, large enough so that she can climb inside herself. This behavior is characteristic only for local birds. However, this does not protect the chicks from all predators. Sometimes woodpeckers destroy clay protection and take out the chicks from the nest.
They eat upside down upside down. Several theories were put forward to explain this behavior. One of them explains this by competition for resources and visual perception. Since the tops are wintering along with other birds, competition for food increases. Viding upside down allows you to quickly find both food and predators.
Brown-headed content living in the southeast of the United States is called the smallest. The bird weighs about 10 g with a size of 10.5 cm. The most impressive creep is giant (19.5 cm in length and weighing up to 47 g), which lives in China, Thailand and Myanmar.