The African continent contains many deserts, including the Sahara, Kalahari, Namib, Nubian, Libyan, Western Sahara, Algeria and the Atlas Mountains. The Sahara Desert covers most of North Africa and is the largest and hottest desert in the world. Experts initially believed that the formation of African deserts began 3-4 million years ago. However, the recent discovery of a 7-million-year-old sand dune. years led them to believe that the history of African deserts may have begun millions of years earlier.
What is the average temperature in African deserts
The temperature of the African deserts is different from the rest of Africa. The average temperature is around 30°C all year round. The average summer temperature is around 40°C, and in the hottest it rises to 47°C. The highest temperature recorded in Africa was recorded in Libya on September 13, 1922. Thermometers freeze at 57°C in Al-Aziziyah. For many years it was believed that this is the most extreme temperature in the world on record.
What is the climate in African deserts
There are several climatic zones on the African continent, and the arid deserts have the highest temperatures. Day and night readings of thermometers are very different. The African deserts mainly cover the northern part of the continent and receive about 500 mm of precipitation annually. Africa is the hottest continent in the world, and the vast deserts are proof of this. Approximately 60% of the African continent is covered by dry deserts. Dust storms are frequent and droughts occur during the summer months. Summer is unbearable along the coastal areas due to high temperatures and intense heat, unlike the mountainous areas, which usually experience moderate temperatures. Sandstorms and Samoom occur mainly during the spring season. August is usually considered the hottest month for deserts.
African deserts and rains
African deserts receive an average of 500 mm of precipitation per year. Rain is rare in the arid deserts of Africa. Precipitation is very scarce, and studies show that the maximum moisture level received by the largest desert, the Sahara, does not exceed 100 mm per year. The deserts are very dry and there are places where there hasn’t been a drop of rain for years. Most of the annual precipitation falls in the southern region during the hot summers, when the area falls into the intertropical convergence zone (climatic equator).
How big are African deserts
The largest desert in Africa is the Sahara, covering approximately 9,400,000 square kilometers. The second largest is the Kalahari Desert, which covers an area of 938,870 square kilometers.
What animals live in African deserts
African deserts are home to many animal species, including the African desert tortoise, African desert cat, African desert lizard, barbary sheep, oryx, baboon, hyena, gazelle, jackal, and arctic fox. African deserts are home to over 70 species of mammals, 90 species of birds, 100 species of reptiles and several arthropods. The most famous animal crossing the African deserts is the dromedary camel. This hardy creature in this area is a mode of transport. Deserts are home to birds such as ostriches, bustards and secretary birds. Many species of reptiles such as cobras, chameleons, skinks, crocodiles and arthropods, including spiders, beetles and ants, have settled among the sands and stones.
How animals adapted to life in African deserts
African desert animals have to adapt to avoid predators and survive in extreme climates. The weather is always very dry and they face severe sandstorms, with extreme temperature changes day and night. The wildlife that survives in African biomes has a lot to fight to survive in the hot climate.
Most animals hide in burrows where they take shelter from the intense heat. These animals come out to hunt at night when it is much colder. Life in the African deserts is difficult for animals, they suffer from a lack of vegetation and water sources. Some species, such as camels, are hardy and resistant to extreme temperatures, surviving days without food or water. Nature creates shaded habitats where animals hide during the day when temperatures are at their highest in African deserts. Animals with light-colored bodies are less susceptible to heat and usually endure high temperatures longer.
Main source of water for African deserts
Animals drink from the Nile and Niger rivers, mountain streams known as wadis. Oases also serve as sources of water. Most of Africa’s desert lands suffer from summer drought as rainfall is low.