Doberman: all about the breed, photos of dogs and characteristics


  • Country of origin: Germany
  • The size:
  • Growth:
    65-69 cm
  • The weight:
    30–40 kg
  • Age:
    up to 14 years old
  • FCI breed group:
    Pinchers and Schnauzers, Molosses, Mountain Dogs and Swiss Cattle Dogs
  • Brief information

  • Smart, easily trained, but require daily education and training;
  • Not suitable for life in the aviary due to the lack of undercoat;
  • excellent watchmen and bodyguards;
  • From 6 months should be accustomed to a muzzle.
  • The story of the breed

    Doberman breed dogs began their existence from the end of the 19th century. In the 1870s, the German trader of stray dogs Friedrich Dobermann set the goal of breeding a breed, which would combine endurance, courage, fearlessness, good reaction and suppleness in training. The result of the experimental crosses of the Old German Pinchers and the ancestors of modern Rottweilers, the socalled “Myasnitsky” dogs, became Doberman. The original name of the breed the Thuringian Pinscher was given by the name of the German province, where in the Thuringian city of Apolda its creator Friedrich Dobermann was engaged in breeding this breed.

    In 1887, at the dog show in Erfurt, the dog was already officially presented. 1890 is considered the year of recognition of the breed. And in 1894, after the death of Dobermann, the name “Thuringian Pinscher” was replaced by “Doberman Pinscher”.

    In 1899, the official breed standard for the Doberman Pinscher was approved.

    Only a few decades later, in 1949, the wording “Doberman Pinscher” was shortened to the name familiar to today’s dog breeders.

    The official entry of the breed into the registry took place only in February 1994. This was done by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. In her registry, she noted the Doberman breed under registration number 143 and identified Germany as the birthplace of these dogs.

    Description of the Doberman breed

    Doberman (German). Dobermann) is a breed of dogs distinguished by grace, clarity of lines and harmony. Doberman delights with its appearance! In all parts of the body, the contours of the muscles are clearly visible. The anatomical nuances of the Doberman’s physique allow the dog to develop greater speed, instantly change the direction of movement.

    Doberman: all about the breed, photos of dogs and characteristics

    Silhouette, in accordance with the characteristics of the breed, slightly sloping towards the bottom, with a smooth transition of lines from one part of the body to another. The length of the Doberman from the scapular-shoulder joint to the ischial tuberosity, according to the breed standard, does not exceed 5% of the height at the withers in males. In females, this proportion does not exceed 10%.

    The shape of the skull when viewed from above has a wedge-shaped configuration with an average length. The difference between the head of the Doberman is the parallel orientation of the facial and frontal plane of the skull. The cheeks fit snugly to the lateral axes of the head, and muscular outlines are clearly visible on them.

    The anatomy of the head and its components makes the Doberman suitable for official purposes, search operations, protection. As a defender, such a dog does an excellent job with the aggression of the attackers the force of his bite reaches 8 atmospheres. And the jaws are compressed with a capacity of up to 143 kg.


    The proportion of the muzzle and the cranium correlates as 1:1. Gradually tapering from the base of the skull to the nose, the head in the muzzle becomes narrow and slightly elongated. Sagging and convex forms on the cheeks are absent. Lips tightly pressed to the base of the dentition, do not sag, tightly compressed.

    The upper and lower jaws are very well developed, widening towards the skull and tapering towards the nose.

    When opening, the mouth opens wide, exposing the extreme teeth molars. The greatest width of the muzzle in the region of the location of the upper and lower incisor teeth.

    The teeth of these dogs are white, the gums of the black Doberman are an exceptional dark color, the puppies and adult dogs are brown the shade of the gums is lighter. This breed of dog is characterized by the presence of 42 teeth with the correct location in the mouth and medium size. Doberman scissor bite.

    The nose has a wide and massive lobe, well-developed wide nostrils that do not protrude much beyond the contours of the muzzle. 


    The shape of the eyes is oval, with dark pigmentation of the pupils. In brown representatives of this breed, the shade of the eyes is usually slightly lighter, which does not contradict the standard and description of the breed. In standard representatives of the Doberman breed at any age from a puppy to an adult pet the eyes should not be bulging. They are either in line with the lateral axis of the skull, or just below it.


    In their natural form, in puppies or in an adult dog without docking, the ears should be drooping and fit snugly against the lateral planes of the skull and cheeks. Dobermans’ cropped ears are always in a standing position. They clearly taper upwards.

    The ears are located on the head of the Doberman in the highest region of the head, they are of medium size. Due to the natural data and the anatomical structure of the ears, the Doberman has excellent hearing.


    For young and adult dogs, the grace of all anatomical parts of the body is characteristic. The lines of the neck also have such grace even at an early age a straight and long neck axis with massive vertebrae and well-developed muscle tissues is formed. The muscularity of the neck of Dobermans is clearly visible under the skin in any color, especially during movement.

    The upper axis of the neck has a smooth graceful bend. Both at rest and during movement, the neck is always kept in a straight position. In males, the withers in the neck area stand out more strongly, in females there is an almost perfect uniformity, which tapers slightly from the bottom to the base of the skull.

    The Doberman’s neck is vertical, the neck always seems to support the head above the upper axis of the body. The proportionality of the length of the neck of this breed and the length of the skull is equivalent.


    The exterior of the Doberman, which is distinguished by the harmony of lines and the texture of the muscle mass, has its own characteristic nuances. The croup is slightly inclined downwards, has a wide upper part. From maklaks to the base of the tail, the sloping is only slightly noticeable. According to the breed standard, a sharp transition from horizontal lines to sloping croup is not allowed. Closer to the tail, it becomes rounded.

    In the lumbar region, a slight increase in width is noticeable. In females, the lumbar region is slightly elongated, which is dictated by the anatomical differences of the reproductive organs. Characteristic features of the back compactness and the allocation of muscle tubercles. The back is short when measured from the top of the head to the start of the withers.

    The withers of Dobermans are distinguished by elongation, vertical setting and length. It determines the angle of inclination of the upper body, starting from the withers towards the croup. In the withers area, the muscularity of the upper part of the exterior is also clearly visible.

    The chest touches the area of ​​the elbow joint. Has a moderately wide shape. In individuals of any age, including young pets, the chest is always oval, almost barrel-shaped. On the lateral planes, the chest is slightly flat. A narrow or rounded chest is considered a fault and does not meet the breed standard.

    The elegance of the exterior of such graceful dogs is largely achieved thanks to a tucked-up belly with elegant underlines and a characteristic smooth curve.

    Front legs

    Strictly vertical, without inclination, forelimbs well developed. Front legs are straight throughout. In the area of ​​the shoulder joint, they form an angle of up to 100-110 degrees. All bones of the shoulder region are of medium length. On examination, the developed muscles of the shoulder joint are clearly visible.

    Other parts of the forelimbs of the Doberman have the following features and characteristics that correspond to the breed standard:

  • Elbow joints have a posterior direction, without eversion of the heads of the ulnar bones. 
  • The strong forearm has a straight shape, with pronounced musculature and a harmonious average length of the bones.
  • The shoulders of the Doberman dog breed are oblique, tight to the chest. They protrude slightly over the thoracic vertebrae. Relative to the horizontal axis of the body, the shoulders have an angle of 50-55 degrees.
  • Shoulder musculature clearly visible on both sides of the humeral crest.
  • At the bottom of the forelimbs wide wrists with a clear relief and quite strong. 
  • The pasterns of Dobermans are well developed, have a strong and dense structure. Seen from the front, they are straight. The slight inclination of the Doberman’s pastern is slightly visible when viewed from the side. The angle of inclination in accordance with the standards of the Doberman dog breed does not exceed 10 degrees.
  • The paws of the forelimbs are small in size, shortened, have a lumpy shape. They slightly resemble the appearance of cat paws. Toes arched type, with dark claws of small length.

    Hind legs

    Due to the anatomical properties of the hind limbs, the movements of the Doberman are always springy, fast and elegant. The free and sweeping step of the dog allows you to quickly develop speed and overcome long distances. While running, the hind legs are perfectly stretched and provide a pushing effect. The developed muscle tissue of the hind limbs gives shock-absorbing properties during movement the Doberman easily repels them from a solid base with noticeable elasticity.

    When moving, the hind leg moves in sync with the front leg of the opposite side.

    In the pelvic region, the muscles of the hind limbs form a convex shape, due to which the croup and hip joint look rounded. The muscles are well developed across the width of the shins and thighs.

    The direction of the hind limbs is vertical, with a straight axis. Both hind legs of the Doberman are strictly parallel to each other. In separate anatomical fragments of the hind limbs, signs characteristic of a Doberman can be traced:

  • The thighs are composed of bones of medium length, on top of which there is a dense layer of muscle fibers. Together with the horizontal axis of the upper back, the Doberman’s hip joint forms a slope with an angle of up to 82-85 degrees.
  • Knee angle approximately 125 degrees. The articulation of the lower leg, part of the thigh and the patella is very strong and durable.
  • The anatomy of the lower leg of the hind limbs is represented by bones of medium length with a strong structure, it has a proportional relationship with the length of the entire hind leg.
  • The hock of the Doberman is distinguished by its high strength and strong build. He has an angle of conjugation of the metatarsus and tibia is 135-140 degrees. Metatarsus itself with a vertical axis, set straight and consists of short bones.
  • The lower part of the hind limb of the Doberman is short and arched. Paws are lump-shaped. The size of the claws, as in the forelimbs short. All nails are absolutely dark, uniform shade.

    Such anatomy of the hind legs dictates both the physiological and physical capabilities of the Doberman. Thanks to this, the dog can reach speeds of up to 36-38 km / h.


    The tail of a Doberman is subject to docking according to the breed standard. This leaves only the top two vertebrae. If docking is not carried out (the reason for this may be a ban on the operation in some states or the refusal of the owners), then the tail remains in a natural shape. It has an almost straight, without curls, shape. Slightly upturned towards the end. Tail hair is short.


    The layer of wool in the Doberman is densely located on the skin with one-dimensional pigmentation. The skin itself is of a tightening type, tightly adjacent to the muscle fibers.

    Dobermans have a short and coarse coat. She has an increased density. The coat is smooth to the touch and lies evenly over the entire surface of the body. Undercoat is unacceptable for this breed, so woolen hair is laid tightly to maintain body temperature stability and protect against frost. In healthy animals, the coat looks shiny, regardless of color. A change in density, loss of luster and the appearance of curly curls indicate a metabolic disorder or the appearance of invasive diseases.

    The size

    Doberman is a medium-sized animal with a moderate body weight. Males of this breed reach a weight of up to 42-45 kilograms. Bitches are usually lighter due to anatomical and physiological features their weight is usually in the range of 30-35 kg.

    When measured at the highest point of the body, the height of the Doberman at the withers should have the following indicators:

  • males have a height with proper maintenance and feeding of approximately 68-73 cm;
  • bitches are always a little more compact: their height at the withers is about 62-68 cm.
  • Excessive massiveness of males or dry and thin exterior of bitches are a deviation from the standards of Doberman description and breed characteristics. 

    Defects include such disproportions in the exterior as a shortened neck, a narrow or too wide head, sagging skin, as well as an excessively sloping body, a long tail, uneven setting of the limbs or an overestimated angle relative to the vertical axis.

    During exhibitions, the size of the Doberman is evaluated, while the standards provide for a maximum deviation from the norm of no more than 2 centimeters.


    Initially, the breed standard, approved in 1899, recognized only black color . In 1901, the Cynologists Association entered in its register of representatives of these brown dogs.

    In accordance with the established characteristics of the breed, there can be two types of Dobermans according to the type of coat color:

  • black;
  • brown.
  • With the exception of Britain and the USA, only these two coat colors are recognized in all countries .

    The color of both varieties of this breed has a remarkable feature the presence of tan or reddish tan.

    Both in the black Doberman and in his brown relative, you can see such tan marks in the area of ​​​​the eyelids, on the cheekbones, in the chest area between the forelimbs. Similarly, such marks are visible inside the ears, near the mouth and under the tail. There are also such tan marks on the limbs of the hind and front paws.

    black dobermans

    In frequently occurring photos of Doberman, you can usually see a dog of this breed of exactly this color. Such animals with their dark coat color make an indelible impression, emphasized by the contrast of the color of almost the entire body and local lightened tan in some areas.

    This color is considered the main color for these dogs.

    However, some puppies are born completely of this color, with barely visible darkened tan. Such dogs are not allowed to participate in exhibitions. Similarly, they are not used for purebred breeding and puppies. But in service dog breeding, such pets are no less useful than their relatives with the appropriate coat color.

    Melanism a uniform color is considered a defect, such cases are rare.

    The advantage of dogs of this breed with this color is a bright red tan, contrastingly emphasizing individual elements of the exterior. Darkening or too light shade is considered an anomaly.

    The classification of colors with this coat color suggests two options:

  • anthracite with a shiny woolen cover;
  • deep dark with a slight reddish tint, visible in the sun.
  • Such features are dictated by the action of dominant genes. In the first case, this is the result of purebred genetics. In the second a consequence of the greater activity of genes in which the red tint is embedded.

    brown dobermans

    The advantage of the brown color dog breeders consider its visual appeal. Shades from tan to dark chocolate give the dog softness, while significantly enlarged the body when visually assessed.  The eyes of dogs are brown, with a slightly light tint. Nose color light brown, uniform.

    In addition to these colors, there are varieties of dogs with non-standard coat colors. These include albinos (usually white), who are not recognized by cynologists in any country in the world. In addition, as a result of a violation of genetics, even parents of the same color may have offspring of Isabella, blue, red hue. All these Doberman colors are considered anomalous, and such dogs are not allowed to mate with purebreds of the standard color, nor to participate in exhibitions.

    Doberman character

    Fearless, energetic and attentive three qualities that are characteristic of a Doberman. However, it is widely believed that this is an aggressive breed: the dog can pounce on a stranger. This is fundamentally wrong. With proper upbringing, the animal will be neutral towards strangers, and show aggression only if it decides that the owner is in danger. But pay attention: a trained animal will never take the initiative, it will obey its owner.

    Doberman and man get along well, but only if this person is the owner. The dog always obeys its owner and, despite its protective and fighting qualities, is considered quite friendly. The characteristic quality of this breed is vigilance. Dobermans are always on the alert, always ready to rush to protect their territory or owner, they notice any dangers in time. Regardless of whether the threat comes from other dogs, wild animals or aggressive people, the Doberman immediately reacts to it, and his friendliness is abruptly replaced by bold, energetic attempts to limit aggression and danger.

    The nature of the representatives of this rather intelligent breed allows you to get along with other animals if they are familiar from childhood. Otherwise, the reaction to a new pet may be unpredictable. And in this case, everything also depends on the training and education of the dog. This is especially evident in the relationship of males. These are dominant individuals who always try to emphasize their superiority over relatives. But this behavior is corrected in the process of training.

    Another striking sign in the behavior of these dogs is their affection. Even during walks, they try not to move away from their master. Dobermans are not distracted even by their relatives of the opposite sex, if the owner is nearby while walking and does not let go far from him. At the same time, such devotion has its limits. In the family, only one of its members has an unquestioning and unlimited influence on such a pupil. Such a dog obeys the rest of the family with less willingness and mostly in the presence of the one who walks, feeds and trains it.

    At the same time, the pet kept in the family will not, for no reason, show its fighting qualities in relation to young children or ignore them. Moreover, he perceives them as equals and is even ready to plunge into active games with the kids.

    The protective qualities of the breed sometimes manifest themselves in the most unexpected way. The character of the Doberman is distinguished by a lively interest in the surrounding people and animals, as well as an excellent lightning-fast reaction. Therefore, any sudden movements of strangers, unexpected circumstances instantly provoke a protective reflex. 

    Meanwhile, a protective reflex and a pronounced readiness to stand up for oneself or the owner never appear without solid motives. These qualities must be provoked by the actions of people or animals, external circumstances. It is worth noting that bitches are more decisive in their actions, feeling like the defenders of their own family. This is especially pronounced within the house or backyard area. Males are more balanced in their actions and much more circumspect than females. They try not to show aggression until they are convinced that there is danger.

    Recommendations for education and training

    Doberman is a dog that, like no other, needs a strong leader. That is why a puppy of this breed cannot be raised by children, teenagers or people with a weak character. If the future owner of the Doberman had no experience in dog training or he was unsuccessful, it is better to immediately contact a cynologist.

    At the same time, Dobermans are distinguished by high intelligence. This allows you to achieve quick and lasting training results. This breed is known for its intelligence and easy acceptance of new commands. During training, the owner must constantly emphasize his superiority, avoid any concessions. The main three criteria for successful Doberman training:

  • sequence you should not start performing new actions and commands until the previous skills are fixed. Moreover, the sequence should also be manifested on the part of the Doberman himself: he must execute the commands correctly, as required by the order;
  • discipline is the most important condition, both for the Doberman and for its owner. You should strictly adhere to the allotted time for training. Bringing the achieved results to their logical conclusion and not softening the attitude towards the dog if something does not work out is a prerequisite; 
  • patience the owner of the Doberman, with all the trainability and excellent intelligence of the dog, must be persistent in any weather and in any mood.
  • To achieve maximum obedience and unquestioning execution of commands, it is better to train a pet from an early age. Doberman puppies, with their quick wit, already from the age of four months are well aware of what the owner requires of them.

    Care and maintenance of Dobermans

    Doberman does not require special care. All that is needed from the owner is to comb and wipe the dog with a damp towel weekly. We must not forget about the examination and cleaning of the ears, eyes and teeth of the pet. Once a week, arrange preventive cleaning and inspection. For hair care, it is better to use combs with dense rubber teeth of a triangular shape.

     Dobermans are best suited to high-quality dry and wet food for large dogs, which are available in the lines of manufacturers, but other types of food can be considered. It is important to remember that they should not be mixed with homemade food (for example, cereals and meat).

    The diet of a Doberman puppy is best agreed with experienced cynologists, veterinarians.

    From time to time, as necessary, trimming of the claws should be carried out they are not grinded too intensively in a Doberman.

    If the dog is kept in a country house, then you can build an aviary for it. But remember the playfulness and activity of the pet: the area for keeping the Doberman should be sufficient at least 7-8 square meters. However, permanent keeping in an aviary is undesirable: periodically the dog must enter the house. This will eliminate the development of aggression and will contribute to the development of the pet’s responsibility for the safety of the trusted territory and owners.

    Doberman puppies should not be supercooled the place for their maintenance should be warm. There should be a rug on the floor.

    Conditions of detention

    Dobermans love physical activity, so they need many hours of walks and runs. In winter, it is worth buying warm clothes for them, because their wool does not contain an undercoat that warms animals.

    Dobermans are quite healthy. However, you need to carefully monitor the nutrition of the dog. Despite the fact that representatives of the breed have a stable digestive system, it is not uncommon for the stomach to turn, which is characteristic of large dogs with a wide chest.

    Dobermans predisposition to diseases

    From an early age, Doberman puppies are distinguished by good health and endurance. Meanwhile, this breed is characterized by some hereditary pathologies:

  • Wobbler syndrome, accompanied by disorders in the joints and vertebrae dislocations, displacements;
  • hypothyroidism an abnormality of the thyroid gland;
  • panostitis congenital lameness without traumatic causes;
  • dysplasia pathological changes in tissues in the hip and elbow joints;
  • von Willebrand-Jurgens syndrome a disorder of blood clotting.
  • Some of these diseases are a consequence of the effects of the Doberman’s weight on the joints. 

    To maintain health, puppies and adults are recommended to be vaccinated against distemper, rabies, parvovirus, hepatitis.

    Tips for Choosing a Doberman Puppy

    When choosing a Doberman puppy, you should first determine a reliable breeder. He must have documents for both parents male and female. Only if you have a veterinary passport, pedigree documents, a certificate of origin and an act of mating, you can start choosing.

    Before reaching six months of age, the breeder must issue a metric for puppies from the entire litter, which then changes to a pedigree in the Federation of Kennel Breeding or a dog training center.

    You should choose only an animal with obvious signs of the breed one of the two standard colors, with an appropriate exterior that meets the characteristics of the breed.

    Puppies from a litter with a small number of individuals are always distinguished by great health. Babies born first are always bigger and more active. At the same time, attention should be paid to such signs of health and compliance with the breed in young Dobermans:

  • soft belly;
  • smooth coat;
  • wide jaws;
  • square body shape;
  • strong pronounced skeleton;
  • massive strong back.
  • To choose a Doberman pet with absolute certainty, it is better to invite an experienced cynologist.

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