Doublebottom plants signs of the family, species and examples, features, structure and meaning

Twoday plants represent one of the classes of flowering plants. From the point of view of evolution, they are considered the very first and ancient plants. However, they are less advanced than monotonous. A large number of modern flowering plants belong to the twobottom class. At the moment, the number of families in the class is about 350. They all have a similar flower structure.

Family of twoday plants

Magnolia subclass

Magnolia subclass has about 12 genera and about 240 varieties. Most plants of this subclass grow in the territories of mountain tropics and subtropics of Asia and America. In Eurasia, they spread in the Kuril Islands. There is a type of type as magnolia backward.

Magnolia is backward

Most plants of magniads are evergreen or deciduous trees. Their leaves are simple and large. Have blades with falling straps. Listustration is the next, and the stems are erect and rounded. The root system rod without metamorphoses. The flowers of most plants are acyclic and single. The number of petals is uncertain. The perianth is simple. The colorful is convex with the upper tie. Ginets is complex apocarp. Magnolia class fruits are primitive and resemble a bump. Endosperm seeds and bright coloring. Spread with birds.

Nympheid’s subclass

Nympheids subclass extremely small. It includes only three orders of aquatic plants. Main representatives: jugstalls and cornealflowers. They spread both in the southern and northern hemispheres.

The most remarkable order is the juggle. It includes various aquatic, nonvascular grassy plants, which are characterized by large, solid budbar or thyroid leaves floating on the surface of the water. Some plants have underwater or dissected leaves. The flowers are single and bolted, hemicicic and located on elongated pedicels. The primitiveness of these plants is indicated by the absence of blood vessels in the xylene. The function of conducting water is ensured by tracheid. The composition of this order includes a family family, which is a rather ancient family of covered plants. Benger fruit spongy sinkarp berry box.

Nelumbonids subclass

Nelumbonida’s subclass is represented by the Lotosaean order, which includes the only lotos family. Represents the lotos family directly lotus. It is represented by two types: American lotus and nutty lotus. They differ from each other in coloring the flower and the distribution area.

American lotus

The American lotus, as the name implies, spread in the northern region of South America, as well as in Jamaica, Hawaii and Antilles.

Walnuted lotus

Nutheber lotus grows in Asia, namely at Ceylon, Hindustan, Indochina. It also meets from Australia and Japan. Lotus is noteworthy in that it is considered a rather ancient plant and has become a symbol of Buddhism.

Lotus stems are modified in creeping rhizomes and are located in the ground under water. The surface leaves are attached on flexible and long stems, rising high above the water and acquiring the shape of the shield. Lotus also has sedentary underwater leaves. They are scaly and lanceolate, with parallel to the veins. Some leaves reach a diameter of 30 centimeters. Their axillary flowers are very beautiful and have an unacceptable cinnamon aroma. The flowers have two cups, a large number of petals and spiral stamens. Lotus fruits are singleseeded nuts.

The subclass Ranunkulids

The Ranunkulids subclass is quite small, since it includes only two abilities, which are united in 12 orders and 19 families. The plants of this subclass are similar to magnesia, but are more advanced. Among the representatives of this subclass there are no empty forms. It occupies an average position between archaicseeded and typical dicotyledonous. The main life form is grass.


Aconit (fighter)


There are no forms among the Ranunkulids with a brightly concave fluid or welldeveloped gypinth. Forms of flowers are most often cyclic, spirocyclic and spiral. There are plants with the disordered location of the parts of the flower. Usually forms are characterized by a simple perianth. Representatives of the Lyutikov family have developed polynomial Androtse and apocarp ginets. Secretory cells in parenchymal tissues in all plants of the subclass are absent. Stamens and fruiting of more specialized type.

Class Cariophyllids

Almost all representatives of the Cariophillids underclass adapted to grow in a dry climate. These plants are most adaptive to deserts or semideserts. However, there are also many highmountain and forest plants. Such species belong to the family of cloves. Life forms of karyophyllids are herbs and shrubs. Class Classy Cariophyllides combines 3 orders, 19 families and about 650 genera.

The leaves are simple and solid. The flowers are bisexual, but there are also representatives with separate leaves, actinomorphic and sometimes nonatlerable. Androtse is diverse. Ginetium is pricked, but there are species with apocarp gnieg. Seeds with perisper and a bent germ.


The hernia is smooth

Hamamelidy subclass

Hamamelidid’s subclass includes 16 orders, 22 families, 71 genders and about 1,500 species. Almost all subclass plants are wood. However, there are shrubs and halfbrushes. In their evolution, the flower simplification is observed. Most of them are separate. The largest number of plants of the subclass of gamamelidids live in Southeast Asia.

Small flowers are cyclic, or without perianth. Apocarp or Sincarp. Fruits in some cases remain free. There is a transition from pollination by insects in windmilling. Seeds with a small or large germ. Can be with or without endosperm. Fruits are most often singleseeded.


Cashtan is real

Daneseda subclass

Danowneous subclass is considered one of the largest subclasses of flowering plants. It is a link between the subclass of magnoliads and rosids. It includes about 31 orders, 97 families, 1910 genera and approximately 36 thousand species. Most often, dwell plants grow in the moderate zone, some of them spread in the tropical and subtropical flora. Life forms can be trees, shrubs and herbs.

The peony is thinleaved

Cool dark purple

The conduct of the system is characterized by the presence of vessels with staircases and simple perforation. Flowers are bisexual or separate. They have a double perianth. Bezless varieties are also found. Androtse is multicolumn, ginets in primitive species apocarp. The most advanced representatives are endowed with a pricefrail gynesum. Seeds have endosperm.

Rosid’s subclass

Rosid’s subclass includes 39 orders and 170 different families. The most common families are pinkflowing, legumes and umbrella. Rosids themselves come from magnoliad, which is associated with such signs as: an actinomorphic flower with a freehazardous whisk, polynomial apocarp ginetia with the upper forming and a large number of stamens.

The life forms of the plants of the Rosid subclass are represented by trees, shrubs, herbs. Sometimes herbs can be with simple, periolayer or palmate leaves. Straps are observed in some species of plants. Flowers of various species can be both in inflorescences and single. Most plants are characterized by bisexual flowers. The petals are located freely, but can grow together. There are a lot of stamens. Fruits are very different depending on the type of plant. Or without endosperm seeds.





Clover Lugovoi

Cracker Cloud

Cracus subclass is considered the ancestor of the most evolutionarily advanced forms of dicotyledonous. It represents the order of Aralian, in which there are about 70 genera and 850 varieties. The largest number of plants belongs to the family of umbrella. Almost all of them are the herbs of a temperate belt. However, there are species in the form of small tropical trees. Cornida’s subclass plants are common throughout the globe.

Leaves are the most complex of all flowering plants. They are dissected several times. An inflorescence can be an umbrella from small flowers that are painted in white, pink or yellow color. In some, the diameter of the flowers can reach half a meter. They are also famous for a large number of nectar and a strong aroma that is distinguished from afar. Insects feed on the nectar of these plants.



Diagil medicinal

Asterida subclass

Asterida subclass includes very highly developed groups of dicotyledonous plants, which have progressive signs. Life forms are extremely diverse. There are asterids in the form of trees, shrubs and herbs. At the moment, Asterida subclass includes about 3.5 thousand genera and 65 thousand species.

The flowers consist of a small number of parts. Almost all of them are concise, and the seeds are exclusively toeitegmatic and usually tenoinucelllates.





Lamiida subclass

Lamiids come from the ancient plants of the Rosid subclass and represent a powerful evolutionary branch, which is described by a high specialization of a fifthly, usually tubular perianth. Lamiida subclass includes about 11 orders, 51 family and 2400 genera.

The flowers of this subclass are characterized by a small fixed number of parts and the “growing” zygomorphia. Ginetius of almost all kinds is pricked and consists of 3 fruiting straps that form the upper, halfhearted and lower ovary. Also, the flowers of this species are characterized by increased zygomorphia on the path of specialization to cross entomophilic pollination. Along with trees and shrubs in the subclass, there are a lot of herbaceous, and sometimes rather specialized forms.


Signs and features of doublebottom plants

The main signs that distinguish the dualbottom plants from oneday:

  • The presence of an embryo with two cotyledons;
  • Welldeveloped main root, which is preserved throughout the life cycle of the plant. Most often, the rod root system prevails in these plants;
  • Due to the presence of cambium, the stem is capable of secondary thickening. Conductive bundles are open;
  • The leaves can be completely different shapes and dissected, they have finger or periy reservoir, the shape of the edge of the leaf plate also differs depending on the species;
  • Distinguish the flowers acyclic, semiciclic and cyclic. The number of members of each circle can be a multiple of 5, sometimes 2 and extremely rarely 3.
  • Plants may vary depending on the family and the kind to which they belong.

    Propagation, development, pollination

    Almost all plants with two cotyledons are pollinated by insects. They attract them using the aroma of flowers and color. Insects fly to the brightest flower. For example, some orchids connect a tactile stimulus, when the plant in appearance has a resemblance to the female insect. Plants that attract insects belong to entomophilic. And plants that spread with the help of wind are anemophilic. There are a number of differences between them. Many dualbottomed are entomophils, but there are among them those who are characterized by selfpollination.

    The seed of the plant is formed from the seed, which is located inside the ovary of the pestle. Semoli has the appearance of a bag and contains several cells. The most important of them are an egg and a central cell. After direct pollination, two sperm penetrates into the ovary of the flower. One of them merges with the egg, forming a zygot, the other merges with the central cell, forming endosperm. This process is called double fertilization.

    The propagation scheme of the twobottom

    The structure of doublebottom plants

    The most visual representative of the dicotyledonous plants is legumes, in particular beans. It has quite large seeds, so it is optimal to study the structure of the seeds of doublebottom plants on them. The appearance of the bean seed has a rounded shape, but one side is always a little convex, and the other is concave. Outside, the seed of a twobottom plant is covered with a special seed peel.

    In beans, it is very thin and smooth, and can also differ in color. The function of this peel is to protect the seed from various kinds of exposure to the external environment and drying out. On the concave side of the beans is a scar, which is the remainder from the seed. Immediately under the peel there is a seed germ. It is quite large sizes due to cotyledon, which contains a supply of nutrients. There are other parts of the embryo between these cotyledons: a germinal root, stalk and an order. They are very small, so considering them without magnifying glass it will be difficult.

    In other plants, nutrients can be in endosperm, german span and stem.

    The structure of doublebottom plants

    Root and leaves of twobottom plants

    For the dicotyledonous plants, as noted the early, the rod root system is characteristic. Its peculiarity is that there is a main root. Side roots depart from this root. The function of the lateral roots is to increase the amount of area absorbing the surface. As a result, the amount of water that enters the cells increases. The escapes of the escape departs, in which the rod root system is available in a small amount. The main root is divided into several zones consisting of various types of fabrics. The root cover is represented by a cover fabric that protects the root. It also does not allow the cells of the division zone to be damaged. For doublebottom plants, the rod root system is an evolutionary advantage, since the main root penetrates deeply into the soil and can get scarce moisture from the deep layers of the soil.

    The root of the twobottom plant

    A sheet of doublebottom plants consists of a flat plate in which all processes associated with photosynthesis occur. In addition to the plate, the plants have a petiole, which is represented by the narrowed knife part attaching the plate to the stem. Leaves in which the petiole is weakly expressed are called sedentary. In many doublebottom plants, the base of the sheet is expanded into the socalled vagina, which covers part of the stem. At the base of the sheet are symmetrical appendages, which are called straps. They are classified for the following types: leafshaped, scaly, brilliant and others. Also, the leaves of the doublebottom plants can be simple and complex. Simple sheets are never divided into separate limited segments called leaflets. Complex sheets differ in that they are divided into leaflets, each of which is equipped with their own small petiole.

    Functions and role of dicotyledonous plants in nature

    Many twobottom plants are represented in wood, due to which they make up the vegetation of various natural zones, including deciduous and mixed forests. In addition, twobottom plants are food for various mammals, birds and insects. At the moment, twobottom plants are a dominant group of plants on our planet. They play inherent value in the formation of the biosphere, atmosphere and climate.

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    1. 광주출장

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