Doublewinged (Deptra) are invertebrates belonging to the class of insects, the type of arthropod, and characterized by the presence of exclusively one pair of wings and complete metamorphosis. This detachment lives in almost every corner of the Earth and the first ancestors of the twowinged insects were seen in the Jurassic period.
- Features of the structure of the body
- The structure of the internal organs of biclane insects
- Types of doublewinged insects
- Bloodsucking mosquitoes
- Fly Tseces
- Cereal (cereal) flies
- Nutrition of twowinged insects
- Stages of development of doublewinged insects
- The significance of twowinged insects
Features of the structure of the body
Some types of twowinged insects have shortened wings. There are also insects that have completely absent wings. As a rule, the presence of one pair of wings is noted, while the rear wings are converted into a buzzing, that is, the pinshaped equilibrium organs of an insect. They also help insect maneuvers in flight and are responsible for sensory control during takeoff. Buzzing is absent only in some parasitic forms of wingless insects. The oral apparatus in biclane insects is a proboscis. In total, three types of trunk are distinguished: piercing-loving, muscoid (filtering) and glossy (drilling). The abdomen is visible segments, in twowinged insects there are from 4 to 10. In female individuals, most representatives of the last segments are converted into a telescopically retractable egg. There are three segments in the chest that are tightly merged with each other.
The structure of the internal organs of biclane insects
In the detachment of the twowinged in the body, hemolymph is circulating, which is similar to blood in animals of the highest type. Hemolymph is washing the internal organs freely, since the circulatory system is unmarried. After washing hemolymph, it is formed in the vessels. Instead of the heart, the doublewinged has a thickened dorsal vessel, which is located in the back of the chest. Gas exchange occurs in the belly, since there are many trams and aorta there. Also, a doublewinged insect is characterized by the presence of the brain.
Types of doublewinged insects
Since the biased insects are vastly common in almost all corners of the Earth, this detachment belongs to one of the most common and wide groups of insects. Habitats of many families are still not known to the end. The variety of twowinged ones has about 100,000 species. We will consider only the brightest representatives of this detachment.
Belong to the group of longeyed. A characteristic feature is the structure of the oral cavity, since the upper and lower lips form a kind of case. Two thin needles are located in such a case. Thanks to these needles (jaws), females of mosquitoes bite people and suck blood. This is necessary to obtain nutrients to produce eggs.
The males are underdeveloped, so they cannot bite. The smell organs consist most of the receptors aimed at finding blood, as well as various chemicals that are released with later. The usual diet of mosquitoes consists of nectars and plant juices. In total, there are about 3,600 species of mosquitoes in the world, in Eurasia only 100 is known.
The benefits of mosquitoes are to pollinate plants, as well as the purification of water bodies. The larvae are engaged in this. And dolls after death enrich the soil with microelements. However, mosquitoes are also carriers of various diseases, although they help to improve human blood circulation with their bites.
With this type of doublewinged insects, probably, everything. This is a fairly common doublewinged one, which leads mainly a day lifestyle, but can be quite active even at night. Distinguish between the fly and the fly of the room small. A small indoor fly has a gray color and a yellow stain in the lower abdomen, and ordinary gray.
To produce the desired amount of energy, flies need to constantly receive nutrients. Most often they feed on liquid food or produce saliva for solid. They prefer products containing sugar and live in contaminated places, such as garbage tanks and landfills. Therefore, flies tolerate dirt and various infections. Sitting on food, flies leave their excrement on it and regain the remnants of food, which increases the risk of human infection with various diseases. The full life cycle of the fly is about 8-20 days.
Flies of Tseces live for the most part in wet and raw habitats. All individuals of this species feed on the blood of mammals. Larvae of flies Tseces are born one by one and live for about a month, and the life expectancy of an adult individual about 200 days. During this time, up to nine propagation occurs. Many people know that these insects are dangerous.
They focus on the smell and bite a large moving object that radiates heat. The danger is that Flies of Tseche infect their victims with tripanosomes. These are small unicellular animals that cause a person with sleeping disease, fever, rash and fever. Animals from a bite can get a nagan disease. However, now such consequences are actively treated. For the wild nature of the fly, the ceremony is useful, since thanks to them the balance of flora and fauna remains, and the soil is less subject to erosion.
At the moment, only 23 types of this kind have been discovered. How to distinguish the tsece from a home fly: the wings lean on each other, the chest has dark brown spots, the abdomen is yellow from above and gray from the bottom, the antennas have hairs, the proboscis is directed forward.
Midges have a small size (2-4 millimeters) and look like very small flies. Males feed on nectar, and females can additionally drink blood of warmblooded animals. Many animals eat midges for food, in addition, they affect the wellbeing of the soil and pollinate plants.
Despite the small size, if you are bitten by the midge, then the edema and pain from its bite will be larger than from the mosquito. This is due to the fact that the midge injects a special fluid during a bite that provokes bleeding. Also, midges can transfer various diseases, and their saliva is allergic reaction. Now the midges live almost wherever the air temperature can rise above 8 ° C. And there are about 2000 species of these insects in total.
Sleeps belong to the subdivision of shortsized and look like large flies. Sleeps have a fleshy trunk, inside of which there are solid styles. The blind antennae sticks forward, and the eyes are large and have spots of various colors. Only females of these insects are dangerous, since it is they who can eat blood. Males, however, eat only nectars of plants, pads and various liquids. Most often, blind people can be found in various reservoirs, as they constantly drink water and lay eggs at rivers and lakes.
The bite of the blind man is very painful, as they inject toxins and anticoagulants along with saliva. Thus, blood does not turn off for a long time and attracts other insects. Toxins can cause redness, edema and an allergic reaction. Sleeps can carry many dangerous diseases, so you should be careful and consult a doctor in case of severe inflammation of the place of bite. The maximum activity of these insects in warm daytime, in the tropics can be active at night.
About 4,400 species of blind people are now known, and 176 species live on the territory of Eurasia.
Mosquitoes belong to the family of butterfly and the subfamily of longsized. These insects are similar to mosquitoes and live in tropical, subtropical, sometimes in a temperate climate. The body of the mosquito is transparent and covered with small hairs, and the wings have the edge. Unlike squeaky mosquitoes, mosquitoes fly absolutely silently. They combine jumps and wings, so the flight is also distinguishable from mosquitoes. Mosquitoes feed on various sweet liquids, rot, pad and mushrooms. Only female individuals drink blood and use to improve the quality and number of eggs.
Mosquito bite is very painful, and after it there is redness up to 10 centimeters, a bump or blister. Such bites itch much and can appear not only alone, but also massively. Mosquitoes carry bacterial and viral diseases and can cause strong allergic reactions. Bites are dangerous not only for people, but also for animals, causing mosquito fever and many other diseases. At the moment, more than 700 species of mosquitoes are known.
Cereal (cereal) flies
Cereal flies belong to the subcuture of shortseated, do not have cells at the base of the wing and are characterized by dark stripes in the chest area. Coloring can be black, gray or yellow. Most often vegetable flies are planted, occasionally there are predatory species and saprophages. They acquired their names due to harmful effects on cereal crops.
Larvae of grain flies devour cultures and make them unsuitable. Farmers are actively fighting these pests, since every year grain flies cause irreparable damage to the fields. Certain types of grain flies that live in the tropics can transfer various diseases. Now the variety of grain flies has about 3,500 species, and Russia 500 types.
Brazes belong to the subdivision of longsophisticated and are small bloodsucking insects. They are distinguished by a small yellow or gray body. Due to the small size, the bloodfalls can fly even through mosquito nets. Such insects bite very painfully and can tolerate dangerous diseases. Their bites can cause an allergic reaction and various complications in humans. Sometimes a bite may not disturb a person, and the disease will develop inside the body. Also, molasses can climb into the mouth, nose, ears or eyes of a person.
Like many other bloodsucking ones, only female molasses for propagation feed on blood, and males eat only nectars and other liquids. The greatest activity of Mokrats early in the morning and late in the evening. They are actively distributed around the world and have about 4000-5000 species. Most often, molasses live in tropical and subtropical countries, sometimes they can meet in regions with a moderate and cooler climate. However, molasses are of undoubted benefit for nature. Cocoa flowers are able to pollinate only two types of insects, and one of them is just a ministry.
A detachment of biclane insects is rich and diverse. There is not a single person who would never meet them. Even despite the fact that many species bring certain discomfort to a person and animals, without them nature could not function properly. Planting plants and soil nutrition in many ways the merit of twowinged insects.
Nutrition of twowinged insects
Most often, doublewinged insects feed on pollen, nectar and liquids that are rich in microorganisms and appear on the remnants of plant and animal origin, amenable. Also, this detachment can feed on the blood of vertebrates and be predators. Among all representatives there are species that do not eat.
Stages of development of doublewinged insects
- Larvae have a torso in the form of a worm, instead of the legs on the abdominal cavity are unreleased ledges.
- Dolls adult individuals are formed inside.
The development of larvae occurs in water, soil, wood, living tissues and rotting remnants.
Reproduction in doublewinged insects is sexually. Distinguish between pedogenesis (reproduction at the stage of larvae) and parthenogenesis (development without fertilization, males are rare or unknown).
This detachment has a complete transformation. Most often, representatives of the doublewinged lay eggs, and some types are inherent in livestock. Then, in the genital tract of the female, the full or partial development of the larva occurs.
The significance of twowinged insects
Despite the fact that doublewinged insects often tolerate infectious diseases, such as malaria and fever, they are of great importance for the animal world. This detachment is often engaged in pollination of various, including cultural, plants. And therefore they contribute to the development of agriculture.