Large, powerful, predatory eagles are active in the daytime. Eagles differ from other carnivorous birds in large sizes, a powerful physique and a massive head and a beak. Even the smallest representatives of the family, such as the eagle-carrix, are relatively long and evenly wide wings.
Most species of eagles live in Eurasia and Africa. Whiteheaded eagles and golden eagles live in the USA and Canada, nine species are endemic for Central and South America and three for Australia.
The eagle resembles the vulture according to the structure of the body and the characteristics of the flight, but it has a completely secure (often crested) head and strong paws with large curved claws. There are about 59 different types of eagles. Ornithologists divided the eagles into four groups:
Females of eagles are larger than males by as much as 30%. The life of the eagle depends on the species, the whiteheaded eagle and the golden eagle live 30 or more years.
- Physical characteristics of the eagle
- The organs of the Eagle
- Eaging paws
- The most common types of eagles
- Berkut (Aquila Chrysaetos)
- Hawki Eagle (Aquila Fasciata)
- Stone Eagle (Aquila Rapax)
- Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)
- Aquila Heliaca)
- Eagle Carlik (Aquila Pennata)
- Silver Eagle (Aquila Wahlbergi)
- Kafra Eagle (Aquila Verreauxi)
- How the eagles propagate
- Who the eagles hunt
- The habitats of the eagles
- Who is hunting eagles in nature
- Destruction of the environment
Physical characteristics of the eagle
All almost all eagles have a spindleshaped shape, which means that the bodies are rounded and narrow at both ends. This form reduces the resistance in flight.
One of the most striking traits of the eagle is its heavy curved bone beak, which is covered with keratin horn plates. The hook on the tip breaks the flesh. The beak is sharp at the edges, cuts a rigid skill of production.
The eagles have two ear holes, one behind, the other under the eye. They are not visible, since they are covered with feathers.
The wings are long and wide, which makes them effective for a soaring flight. To reduce turbulence when air passes through the end of the wing, the ends of the feathers at the end of the wings are narrowed. When the eagle fully opens the wings, the ends of the feathers do not contact.
The organs of the Eagle
The acute vision of the eagle reveals prey from a long distance. The eyes are located on both sides of the head, directed forward. Vision sharpness is provided by large pupils, which minimally dispel the light that is part of the pupil.
The eyes are protected by the upper, lower eyelids and migratory membranes. It acts like the third eyelid, moves horizontally, starting from the inner angle of the eye. The eagle closes the transparent membrane, protects the eyes without losing visibility. The membrane distributes the eye fluid, maintaining humidity. She also protects when flying on windy days or when dust and garbage are in the air.
Most eagles have a ledge or eyebrow above and before the eye that protects from the sun.
Eagles have muscular and strong paws. Paws and feet are covered with scales. 4 fingers on the paw. The first is directed back, and the other three forward. Each finger has a claw. The claws are made of keratin, hard fibrous protein and curved down. Strong fingers and strong sharp claws of birds catch and transfer the prey.
Eagles that kill and carry large prey have long rear claws, which also catch other birds in flight.
Most species of eagles have a plumage of not very bright colors, mainly brown, rusty, black, white, bluish and gray. Many species change the shade of the plumage depending on the stage of life. Young whiteheaded eagles are completely brown, in adult birds a characteristic white head and tail.
The most common types of eagles
Berkut (Aquila Chrysaetos)
Mature Golden Eagles are pale brown with golden heads and necks. Their wings and the lower body are dark gray-brown, the bases of the wing and tail feathers are marked by fuzzy darker and pale stripes. The golden eagles are visible in pale red-brown spots on the chest, on the front edges of the wings and on the central lower parts of the body. Belovoy spots of different sizes are visible near the joints on large central and internal hidden feathers of the wings.
The plumages of young golden eagles are characterized by greater color contrast. Featers of wings are dark gray, without stripes. In the main and some secondary feathers, whitish spots are visible closer to the bases, and the upper and lower grinding plumage of the wings of black-brown-brown color. The tails are mostly white with a wide black stripe along the tips.
Adolescents gradually change the color and begin to resemble adult birds more, but get a complete plumage of adult berchuts only after the fifth molting. Reddish marks on the stomach and back are more pronounced with age. The golden eagle has yellow claws and feathers on the upper part of the paws and blackhanded beaks with a yellow wax. Young birds have brown irises, in mature-yellowish-red.
Golden Eagles fly, making 6-8 waves of wings, followed by planning, lasting a few seconds. Falling golden eagles raise long wings up in a light V-shaped form.
Hawki Eagle (Aquila Fasciata)
During the search for food, birds show a unique feature pattern. The hawk eagle has a dark brown color on the upper part, white on the stomach. Elubicated vertical dark stripes with a noticeable pattern are visible, which gives the eagle a characteristic and beautiful appearance. The eagle has a long tail, brown from above and white from below with one wide black end strip. His paws and eyes are distinctly yellow, and a light yellow color is visible around the beak. Young eagles are distinguished from adults in less bright plumage, beige stomach and the absence of a black strip on the tail.
In a graceful flight, the bird shows strength. The hawk eagle is considered a small and medium-sized bird, but its body length is 65-72 cm, the wingspan of males is about 150-160 cm, in females-165-180 cm, it really is impressive. Weight ranges from 1.6 to 2.5 kg. Life expectancy up to 30 years.
Stone Eagle (Aquila Rapax)
In birds, the color of the plumage can be any, from white to reddish-brown. These are versatile predators in terms of food, eat, from anyone, from dead elephants to termites. They prefer to delve into garbage and steal food from other predators when they can, and hunt when there are no no next to fall. The habit of collecting garbage negatively affects the population of stone eagles, because they often eat poisoned baits used by a person in the fight against predators.
Stone eagles are much more effective in eating, than their colleagues-mammals, as they see carcasses earlier and fly to potential food faster than a land animal reaches.
Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)
The call of the steppe eagle sounds like a cry of a raven, but it is rather a quiet bird. The length of the adult is about 62 81 cm, wingspan 1.65 2.15 m. Females weighing 2.3 4.9 kg, a little larger than 2 3.5 kg of males. This is a large eagle with a pale throat, brown upper body, blackshouldered field feathers and tail. Young birds in color are less contrasting than adults. Eastern subspecies a. N. nipalensis is larger and darker than European and Central Asian a. N.
This is one of the largest eagles, it is a little less berry. Body size from 72 to 84 cm, wingspan from 180 to 215 cm. Adult birds are dark brown, almost black, with a characteristic golden color on the back of the head and neck. Typically, there are two white spots of different sizes on the shoulders, which in some individuals are completely absent. Tail feathers yellowish-gray.
Young birds have ocher features. Flight feathers of young eagles-burlors are evenly dark. The color of an adult is formed only after the 6th year of life.
Eagle Carlik (Aquila Pennata)
The subspecies with a dark opera is less common. Head and neck are pale brown, veins of dark brown color. The forehead is white. The upper body is dark brown with lighter feathers on the upper half of the pale blue, with dark-gray-brown edges of the tail. The lower body of the body is black and brown.
The light subspecies of the eagle-caral on the paws are visible white feathers. The back is dark gray. The lower body is white with reddish-brown veins. Head pale red and with streaks. In flight, a pale strip on the dark upper wing is visible. Closed pale with black feathers.
Both sexes are similar. Young individuals resemble adult dark subspecies with a more red lower body and dark stripes. The head is reddish.
Silver Eagle (Aquila Wahlbergi)
This is one of the smallest eagles, and it is often confused with the yellowdoped kite. Individuals are mostly brown, but several different color morons are registered inside the species, some birds are dark brown, other white.
Small silver eagle hunts in flight, rarely out of an ambush. Attacks small hares, young manners, reptiles, insects, steals from nests of the chicks. Unlike other eagles, whose chicks are white, young animals of this species are covered with chocolate-brown or pale brown fluff.
Kafra Eagle (Aquila Verreauxi)
One of the largest eagles, 75–96 cm in length, males weigh from 3 to 4 kg, more massive females from 3 to 5.8 kg. Wingspan from 1.81 to 2.3 m, tail length from 27 to 36 cm, foot length from 9.5 to 11 cm.
The plumage in adult eagles is dark black, with a yellowish head, the beak is gray and yellow. Intensely yellow “eyebrows” and rings around the eyes contrast with black feathers, and irises of dark brown color.
The eagle has a V-shaped snow-white pattern on the back, the tail is white. The pattern is noticeable only in flight, because when the bird sits, white accents are partially closed by wings.
The base of the wings is decorated with black and white stripes, the beak is thick and durable, the head is round, the neck is strong, the long legs are completely covered. Teenage eagles have a golden red head and neck, black head and chest, cream-colored paws, covering the wings of a dull yellow color. The rings around the eyes are darker than in adult eagles, acquire the color of a mature individual after 5-6 years.
How the eagles propagate
They build nests on tall trees, rocks and cliffs. The female lays a laying of 2-4 eggs and forces them for about 40 days. Depending on the climate, incubation lasts from 30 to 50 days. The male caught small mammals, feeds the eagle.
After leaving the egg, covered with white fluff, a helpless cub completely depends on the mother in food. He weighs about 85 g. The first cub has an advantage in age and size before other chicks. He gets stronger faster and more successfully competes for food.
Before leaving the nest for the first time, young eagles remain “chicks” for 10-12 weeks. It takes so much time so that the chicks become enormous enough to fly, and large enough to hunt for prey. The young individual returns to the parent nest for another month and asks for food until they feed. 120 days after the birth of a young eagle will become completely independent.
Who the eagles hunt
All eagles are strong predators, but the type of feed depends on where they live and from sight. Eagles in Africa mainly eat snakes, in North America of fish and waterfowl, such as ducks. Most eagles only hunt for prey, which are fewer, but some eagles attack deer or other large animals.
The habitats of the eagles
Eagles are found in various areas. These include forests, water-white lands, lakes, meadows and others. Birds live almost everywhere all over the world except Antarctica and New Zealand.
Who is hunting eagles in nature
A healthy adult eagle, thanks to impressive size and hunting skill, has no natural enemies. A number of predators are hunting eggs, chicks, young eagles and wounded birds, such as other predatory birds, including eagles and hawks, bears, wolves and pums.
Destruction of the environment
Destruction of the habitat is one of the biggest threats. The territory of birds, as a rule, extends to 100 square km, and they return to the same nest from year to year.
Eagles are persecuted by people for hunting cattle or killing game, such as hazel grouse. Many eagles were indirectly poisoned by carrion, which in turn died of pesticides.
In some regions, they hunt for birds for feathers, eggs are stolen for illegal sale in the black market.