Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere. The peculiarity of this country is that one state occupies the whole mainland. In the course of economic activity, people have mastered about 65% of the continent, which undoubtedly led to changes in ecosystems, a reduction in the ranges of flora and fauna species.
Soil degradation problem
Due to industrial development, land clearing for fields and livestock pastures, soil degradation occurs:
As a result of agricultural activities and the use of poor quality water, the soil is saturated with mineral fertilizers and substances. Due to deforestation and forest fires, improperly organized grazing areas, the integrity of the vegetation and soil cover is violated. Droughts are common in Australia. Add to this global warming. All these reasons lead to desertification. It is worth noting that part of the continent is already covered by semi-deserts and deserts, but desertification also occurs on fertile lands, which eventually become depleted and become unsuitable for life.
As with other wooded regions, Australia has a problem with the conservation of forest areas. On the east coast of the continent are rain forests, which since 1986. are a world heritage site. Over the course of time, a huge number of trees were cut down, which are used for the construction of houses, structures, in industry and in everyday life. Now people are trying to save the Australian forests, and a large number of reserves are organized here.
Due to the degradation of nature and purposeful extermination by colonists of Aborigines leading the traditional lifestyle, the size of the indigenous population was reduced to critical indicators. Their standard of living remains to be desired, but in the twentieth century civil rights were assigned to them. Now their number does not exceed 2.7% of the total population of the country.
Thus, there are many environmental problems in Australia. Most of them are caused by anthropogenic activities, but global environmental problems also affect the state of the environment. To preserve nature and biodiversity, to avoid the destruction of ecosystems, it is necessary to change the economy and use safe innovative technologies.