The Ob is a river flowing through the territory of Eurasia and is one of the largest rivers in the world. Its length is 3,650 kilometers. The Ob flows into the Kara Sea. On its banks there are many settlements, among which there are cities that are regional centers. The river is actively used by man and is experiencing a serious anthropogenic load.
Description of the river
The Ob is divided into three sections: upper, middle and lower. They differ in the nature of nutrition and direction of flow. At the beginning of the path, the channel makes many bends, sharply and often changing the general direction. It flows east, then west, then north. Later, the channel becomes more stable, and the flow strives for the Kara Sea.
On its way, the Ob has many tributaries in the form of large and small rivers. It has a large hydroelectric station of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station with a dam. In one of the places the mouth is separated, forming two parallel streams of the river, called small and large.
Despite the large number of flowing rivers, the food is mainly snowy, that is, due to the flood. In the spring, during the melting of snow, water flows to the channel, forming large growths on the ice. The level in the channel rises even before the ice is opened. Actually, raising the level and intensive filling of the channel plays a large role in the spring opening of the ice. In the summer, the river is also replenished as a result of rains and flows from the adjacent mountains.
Using the river by man
Due to its size and a decent depth of up to 15 meters, the Ob is used for navigation. Throughout the entire length, several sections are allocated, limited by specific settlements. The river carries both freight and passenger traffic. Transportation of people along the Ob began a very long time ago. She played a big role in sending prisoners to the regions of the Far North and Siberia.
Since ancient times, this great Siberian river has played the role of a nurse, giving the locals a huge amount of fish. There are many species here sturgeon, sterlet, nelma, pike. There are also simpler ones: crucian carp, perch, roach. In the diet of Siberians, fish has always occupied a special place; here it is boiled, fried, smoked, dried, used to bake delicious fish pies.
The Ob is also used as a source of drinking water. In particular, the Novosibirsk Reservoir was built on it, for the purpose of supplying water to a city with a population of more than a million people. Historically, the water of the river was used year-round, not only for the needs of quenching thirst, but also for economic activities.
Human intervention in natural systems is rarely without negative consequences. With the active development of Siberia and the construction of cities along the banks of the river, water pollution began. Already in the 19th century, the problem of sewage and horse manure getting into the channel became urgent. The latter fell into the river in winter, when a road was laid on the hard ice, used by sledges with horses. The melting of ice led to the ingress of manure into the water and the start of its decay processes.
Nowadays, the Ob is also subject to pollution by a variety of domestic and industrial wastewater, as well as ordinary garbage. The passage of ships adds engine oil to the water and condensed exhaust gases from ship engines.
Changes in the composition of the water, disruption of the natural flow in some areas, as well as fishing for spawning have led to the fact that some species of aquatic fauna are included in the Red Book of Eurasia.