Ecology of Crimea | Environmental problems of Crimea and ways to solve them

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By the beginning of the 21st century, the territory of the Crimean peninsula has already been fully developed by people and is quite densely populated. There are both natural landscapes and settlements, however, the influence of the anthropogenic factor is significant here and there are no more than 3% of places untouched by man. Here, the rich nature and terrain can be divided into three zones:

  • steppe zone;
  • mountain range;
  • sea ​​coast.
  • The northern part of the peninsula has a temperate continental climate. A narrow strip of the southern coast lies in the subtropical climate zone.

    Features of the steppe Crimea

    At the moment, most of the Crimean steppe, especially in the north of the peninsula, is used for agricultural land. Here, a change in the environment led to the construction of the North Crimean Canal. So the soils were salinized, and the level of groundwater rose significantly, which led to the flooding of some settlements. As for the quality of water, it enters the canal from the Dnieper, and is already polluted by domestic and industrial wastewater. All this contributed to the extinction of some animals and birds.

    Mountain Crimea

    The mountain range of Crimea is diverse. Quite gently sloping mountains descend to the steppe, and steep cliffs to the sea. There are also many caves here. Mountain rivers flow through narrow gorges, they become stormy at the moment the snow cover melts. In the hot season of summer, small reservoirs dry up.

    It is worth emphasizing that in the mountains you can find sources of clean and healing water, but now their number is decreasing due to cutting down trees. This factor significantly affects climatic changes in the area. Also, livestock breeding has become a negative phenomenon, since cattle destroy the grass, so that the soil is depleted, which generally affects the change in the ecosystem.

    The coast of Crimea

    A resort area with recreation centers and preventive and healthy sanatoriums formed on the sea coast of the peninsula. Therefore, life here is divided into two periods: a resort period and a lull. All this leads to the degradation of the ecosystems of the premium of the zone, since the load on nature from April to October is significant. Artificial beaches are created here, which leads to the extinction of marine inhabitants. Intensive bathing of a huge number of people leads to a decrease in the quality of sea water, it loses its healing properties. Ecosystems of the coast lose the possibility of selfcleaning.

    In general, the nature of Crimea is rich, but for a long time the peninsula has become a popular resort in Europe. The activity of human activity leads to the depletion of the Crimean ecosystems, as a result of which the areas of flora and fauna are reduced, some species die out altogether.

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