Ecology types and basic concepts, definition of ecology | Natural ecology

Ecology (Russian. Doref. oikologia) (from DR.-Greek. οἶκος abode, housing, house, property and λόγος concept, teaching, science) this is a science that studies the laws of nature, the interaction of living organisms with the environment. First proposed the concept of ecology Ernst Haeckel in 1866. However, people were interested in the secrets of nature since antiquity, had a careful attitude towards it. The concepts of the term “ecology” exist hundreds, at different times scientists gave their definitions of ecology. The word itself consists of two particles, from the Greek “oikos” is translated as a house, and “logos” as a teaching.

With the development of technological progress, the state of the environment began to deteriorate, which attracted the attention of the world community. People have noticed that the air has become polluted, species of animals and plants are disappearing, water in rivers is deteriorating. These and many other phenomena were given the name environmental problems.

Global environmental issues

Most environmental problems have grown from local to global. Changing a small ecosystem in a specific part of the world can affect the ecology of the entire planet. For example, a change in the Gulf Stream ocean current will lead to major climate changes, a cooling of the climate in Europe and North America.

To date, scientists have dozens of global environmental problems. Here are just the most relevant of them that threaten life on the planet:

  • – changing of the climate;
  • – air pollution;
  • – depletion of fresh water reserves;
  • – reduction of populations and the disappearance of the species of flora and fauna;
  • – destruction of the ozone layer;
  • – pollution of the oceans;
  • – destruction and pollution of the soil;
  • – depletion of minerals;
  • – Acidity of acid rain.
  • This is not the whole list of global problems. Let’s say, environmental problems that can be equated with disaster are the biosphere pollution and global warming. Annually, the air temperature rises by +2 degrees Celsius. The reason for this is greenhouse gases and, as a result, a greenhouse effect.

    In Paris, a worldwide conference was held on the problems of ecology, at which many countries of the world pledged to reduce the number of gas emissions. As a result of a high concentration of gases, ice is melting at the poles, the water level increases, which further threatens to flood the islands and coast of continents. To prevent an impending disaster, it is required to develop joint actions and carry out measures that will contribute to the slowdown and termination of the global warming process.

    The subject of study of ecology

    At the moment there are several sections of ecology:

  • – general ecology;
  • – bioecology;
  • – social ecology;
  • – industrial ecology;
  • – agricultural ecology;
  • – applied ecology;
  • – human ecology;
  • – medical ecology.
  • Each branch of ecology has its own subject of study. The most popular is general ecology. It studies the surrounding world, which consists of ecosystems, their individual components climatic zones and relief, soil, flora and fauna.

    The value of ecology for every person

    Caring for the environment today has become a fashionable activity, the prefix “eco” is used everywhere. But many of us do not even realize the depth of all the problems. Of course, it’s good that a huge number of people have become indifferent to the life of our planet. However, it is worth realizing that the state of the environment depends on each person.

    Any resident of the planet can perform simple actions daily, which will help improve the ecology. For example, you can recycle waste paper and reduce water use, save energy and throw garbage in the bin, grow plants and use reusable items. The more people who follow these rules, the more chances there will be to save our planet.

    Why do we need ecology?

    Boy and the Earth ecological cartoon for children

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