Sandy snake Efa (lat. Echis carinatus) Classy class, scaly detachment, family of vipers, genus Efa.
Sandy efs are representatives of the Gadyuk family, namely these snakes are recognized not only by the most poisonous reptiles in nature, but also by the crown of evolution among this detachment. The little Efa, despite its bewitching and harmless appearance, and a rather calm character, is able to poison the enemy for just a few moments: it occupies a worthy place in the top ten most poisonous snakes. Its poison is so strong that even the timely introduction of serum will not protect from health problems for the rest of his life.
This poison is capable of causing unstoppable bleeding at the place of a bite, which is accompanied by bleeding from the oral mucosa, and the eyes, as well as hemorrhage in the internal organs. According to statistics, at least 20% of all victims dies from the bite of sandy efa, but the rest can be saved by introducing serums.
Sandy efa reptiles of a small size up to a maximum of 76 cm in length twice as much miniature than the same cobra or gürza. One of the identifying features of this species can be called a zigzag light strip along the length of the whole body. Be sure to have white spots (back and head) and in various subspecies of this snake, the brightness of the spots differs.
Scales in these reptiles are small, with fairly tangible protruding ribs in the back of the back. On the sides, the body of the snake is equipped with several rows (up to five) small, directed diagonally down the scales, which are framed by gear ribs. These scales serve as a kind of musical accompaniment, thanks to which the snake creates a certain warning signal similar to hissing rustling.
Unlike other snakes, the sandy ef moves through the loose sands not like all reptiles, t.e. exciting, and a lateral course, which is accompanied by sharp throws of the body in a certain direction. It looks memorable and unusual: the snake first throws the head, then abruptly pulls the back of the body to it, and only then followed by the front. As a result of such an unusual method of movement on the sand, you can find a distinct trace of oblique strips with wrapped ends.
Sandy efs are small snakes, and their length rarely exceeds one meter. Males of this type of reptiles have more impressive dimensions than females. The bright color of these snakes (yellow or golden), accompanied with a pattern of two zigzagshaped lines over the body and light head spots, forming a kind of pattern in the form of a cross or a soaring bird, are signs that determine this species. In general, these reptiles have a very elegant appearance.
These reptiles have huge eyes of a round shape: and the color of the iris of the eyes usually coincides with the general coloring of sandy efa. The belly of the snake is usually a light yellow shade, but the scales itself can be varied-its color depends, to a greater extent, on the area where the Efa lives: from golden to dark brown.
The body of the sandy efa is covered with scales tiny and rude to the touch, some of them are called to provide others about the appearance of this formidable enemy due to the fact that they grow in the opposite direction, they are able to create absolutely specific sound that is moving on a rustling.
Where it lives
Close relatives of sandy EF ordinary vipers. They live in more humid places, and the Efa chose the habitat with a rather dry and hot territories: deserts (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan), sandy areas in the northern part of Africa, and the south of Asia, starting from the Arabian Peninsula to the foothills and valleys of Iraq, Afghanistan and some Industan areas (EFS are found here in an incredible quantity). That is, it can be found in almost all areas that belong to the Asian part of Eurasia.
The Efa prefers to conduct a recluse image of existence, and try to avoid meeting with a person with all means. And practice indicates that the vast majority of all the bites of this snake are a consequence of a person’s negligence: a victim either steps on a snake or destroys its nest, regardless of the intentionality of such an act.
At the same time, with the shelter, Efa does not have problems. It is either thickets, or cracks, or holes. But the sandy ef gives preference to sandy areas, where there are shrubs and herbs in the presence. Efa also feels great on rocky surfaces.
The sandy ef can be called the only representative of this kind that could be found on the territory of the former USSR. The subspecies of this kind, the Central Asian Efa, lives in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and in some areas of Tajikistan. Sometimes echis carinatus multisquamatus belongs to some biologists to a separate type of reptile.
Unlike all their relatives, sandy efs have a high level of activity. The Efa is a rather mobile reptile, they spend most of its life in motion, without stopping even at the time of digestion of food.
But sometimes, in particular in early spring, these snakes love to lie and bask in the sun, like any reptile. With the onset of the period of winter cold, many of the snakes fall into hibernation, but not a sandy efa. This snake continues to lead an active life, and even the period of its mating can occur in the middle of winter (sometimes even in January). The only conditions for this are an acceptable ambient temperature.
In the spring and autumn period, these snakes prefer a daytime type of activity, but in the summer, in the heat, they switch to a night lifestyle. They usually begin wintering in the middle of autumn and for this EFA is looking for a suitable shelter for themselves. And on warm days they can often be found in the sun in warring.
The main and overwhelming part of the diet of these reptiles is a variety of insects: from grasshoppers, to bugs and locusts. But adult individuals do not mind enjoying small mammals rodents, birds and reptiles. Young snakes who have not yet gained the necessary dexterity are usually content with insects and small lizards.
The marriage games of this type of reptiles begin in winter, and the period of mating can start already in the middle of winter. The season of propagation of these snakes falls at the beginning of spring and lasts over a month.
Unlike other species of reptiles, EFAs are vibrant snakes, which is their distinctive feature. The female brings babies in early summer, and in the dropout there are from three to 16 cubs, the length of which is no more than 15 cm.
The bite of sandy efa is extremely dangerous, and most cases of attacks of this snake end in death. The dose of a poisonous substance that can cause a fatal outcome is 5 mg. Efa cannot be called the most poisonous snake. It is only in seventh place, but, relying on statistics, we can conclude that every seventh who died from the bite of the snake on the ground died precisely from the bite of this type of reptile. And dies from the bite of this dangerous snake every fifth.
Its poison contains extremely powerful toxins, they have a specific effect on the entire bloodforming process in the human body. Because of them, the level of fibrinogen is very sharply reduced-a protein, which is responsible for the coagulation indicator, which means that the victim simply bleeds with blood.
This snake does not fear a person, and it can often be found in a dwelling or utility rooms, where it crawls in search of food. There are cases when these snakes settled simply under the floor in the house. EFS is extremely dangerous, as a rule, during the period of mating and marriage games.
The sandy efa is not just active, it is able to jump to a height over a meter, and no less than three meters in length. And if we are talking about an angry female with cubs, then she will attack with lightning speed and without warning.
Activity, mobility in combination with the speed that the Efa is capable of can make an indelible impression. Before the attack, the snake begins to wriggle in a specifically, forming two bends from the body and holding his head in the pose of attacks right between them. At the same time, the Efa is spinning all the time, and there is no calm for a moment.