Endemics Baikal | Plants, fish and animals of endemic Baikal

Baikal a unique natural phenomenon. There is no similar lake in any of the various corners of our planet. It is the deepest and cleanest lake with a huge margin of fresh water. Baikal’s plant and animal world is rich, and the same time is very fragile. Many living beings living in the lake and in nearby territories are facing the disappearance. This is due to both the limitations of the range of certain types and with different human activities in a given area (economic, commercial, tourist). Plants and animals, including many endemic representatives, need special protection and protection.


Barguzinsky sable

Barguzinsky sable is a very unusual predator of the Kunih family, which has a unique dark color of the fur. Because of it, it is one of the main objects of the fur fishing of Siberia (even depicted on the coats of arms of many Siberian cities). At the beginning of the 20th century, he was on the verge of disappearance. The need to protect Sobol was the reason for the creation of the Barguzinsky reserve.

Baikal seal

Representatives of the family of real seals the Baikal seal live on the banks of the Baikal. An adult seal can weigh up to 130 kg, and the length of its body is an average of 160 cm. Life expectancy usually does not exceed 55 years. This animal moves with the help of fins and tail: very slowly on land and much faster in the aquatic environment. The population of these mammals is reduced every year.

Olkhonskaya Polevka

In the national park of the Baikal region in the steppe regions and a number of islands, another endemic of these territories lives the Olkhon vole. This rodent settles in rocky places and rocky outcrops. Vole in the Red Book of the Irkutsk region is listed as one of the species with a sharply declining population. This is due to the development of tourism in the park. Today, active measures are being taken to increase the number of the Olkhon vole.

musk deer

Musk deer is an endangered species of artiodactyl herbivorous animals inhabiting the territory of Eastern Siberia. Outwardly, they are similar to deer. A characteristic feature of the species is the presence in males of long curved fangs-tusks protruding from the mouth and directed downwards. The musk deer has good maneuverability and is able to run away from pursuit very quickly, confusing the tracks.

Irbis (snow leopard)

This species of the cat family is distinguished by a beautiful spotted gray-smoky coat color. The animal has a long body and tail with relatively short legs. In length, the snow leopard can reach more than 2 meters, and its weight is approximately 55 kg. Like any cat, Irbis is inherent in body flexibility and smoothness of movements.

The snow leopard is a vulnerable species under the protection of the Red Data Books of Eurasia and the IUCN.


Siberian cedar

Siberian cedar or Siberian cedar pine belongs to the class of coniferous plants. This evergreen tree reaches a height of more than 40 m, and the thickness of its trunk is approximately 2 m. Cedar lives for a very long time: up to 500, and according to some sources up to 800 years. It is especially valuable with its seeds tasty and very healthy cedar nuts. They contain a whole range of useful substances for humans.

stilted tree

On the shores of Lake Baikal there is an unusual natural phenomenon stilted (or otherwise walking) trees. This is the name of larches and pines growing on sandy soils. Winds blow sand from under the roots of trees, thereby exposing them. Roots sticking out above the surface of the earth create the appearance of the movement of trees. This circumstance formed the basis of the name.

Relic spruce forest

There is a unique spruce massif on Olkhon Island. It has remained unchanged to this day since the Ice Age. The spruce forest, with an area of ​​340 hectares, is formed by trees that grow very densely to each other. The high location and wetter conditions of the island slope largely contributed to the preservation of spruces in this area, while the climate in the surrounding areas was less favorable.

Long-lived larch

Larch is a fairly common coniferous plant. Its approximate age is 300-400 years. A centenarian grows on the territory of Lake Baikal, whose age has already passed the mark of 500 years. The trunk of this larch is 1.2 m in diameter, and the height exceeds 20 m. Long-lived larch has been a specially protected natural monument since 1980.

Olkhon Astragalus

This is a herbaceous perennial, whose distribution area is limited to the western coast of Olkhon Island. Olkhon Astragalus loves sandy soils, grows mainly in dunes. The latter are very mobile, and this affects the population of this plant. Astragalus is under the threat of complete extinction, in connection with which it was placed on the list of the Red Book of Eurasia.

Zunduk kopeck

Kopeck is a squat plant with bright pink flowers. It has been preserved since the Miocene period and grows on the coast of the Small Sea, included in the Pribaikalsky National Park. It is included in the Red Book of Eurasia as a flora that is threatened with complete extinction, mainly due to the limited area of ​​\u200b\u200bgrowth.


Baikal is located at the junction of the Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia, representing the largest freshwater body of water on the entire continent. For the existence of the lake for many millions of years, a peculiar natural ecosystem has formed on its territory. Plants and animals familiar to other places, and species of living organisms characteristic only of these places coexist in it. They need protection the most. For this purpose, the Pribaikalsky National Park was formed in 1986, the purpose of which is to preserve the unique nature of the Baikal coast. Also, in different years, the Baikal-Lena Reserve, the Krasny Yar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Tofalar Wildlife Sanctuary appeared here.

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