Environmental problems of the Arctic Ocean presentation

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest on the planet. Its area is “only” 14 million square kilometers. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere and never warms up to the extent of melting ice. The ice cover periodically moves, but does not disappear. Flora and fauna here, in general, do not differ in variety. A large number of species of fish, birds and other living creatures are observed only in certain areas.

Ocean development

Due to the harsh climate, the Arctic Ocean has been inaccessible to humans for many centuries. Expeditions were arranged here, but it was not allowed to adapt it for shipping or other activities.

The first references to this ocean are dated the fifth century BC. The study of the territories was attended by numerous expeditions and individual scientists who have studied the structure of the reservoir, straits, seas, islands for many centuries for many centuries.D.

The first attempts of shipping in the regions of the ocean free from eternal ice were undertaken in 1600. Many of them were completed as a result of the clamping of vessels with multiton ice floes. Everything has changed with the invention of icebreakers. The first icebreaker was built in Eurasia and was called the Payot. It was a steamer with a special shape of the bow, which allowed to crack ice due to the large mass of the vessel.

The use of icebreakers made it possible to start shipping activities in the Northern Arctic Ocean, master transport routes and create a whole list of threats for a local original environmental system.

Garbage pollution and chemicals

The massive arrival of people on the shores and ice of the ocean led to the formation of landfills. In addition to certain places in the villages, garbage is simply thrown onto the ice. It is covered with snow, freezes and remains in the ice forever.

A separate point in ocean pollution are a variety of chemicals that appeared here due to human activities. First of all, it is sewage. Every year, about ten million cubic meters of untreated water is dumped into the ocean from various military and civilian bases, settlements, stations.

For a long time, undeveloped coasts, as well as numerous islands of the Arctic Ocean, were used for the disposal of various chemical wastes. So, here you can find barrels with used engine oil, fuel and other dangerous contents. Containers with radioactive waste that threaten all living things within a radius of several hundred kilometers are flooded in the Kara Sea.

Economic activity

The stormy and ever-increasing human activity in the arrangement of transport routes, military bases, platforms for the extraction of minerals in the Arctic Ocean leads to the melting of ice and a change in the temperature regime of the region. Since this body of water has a huge impact on the overall climate of the planet, the consequences can be dire.

The splitting of centuries-old ice, noise from ships and other anthropogenic factors lead to a deterioration in living conditions and a decrease in the number of classic local animals polar bears, seals, etc.d.

Currently, within the framework of the conservation of the Arctic Ocean, the International Arctic Council and the Strategy for the Protection of the Arctic Environment, adopted by eight states that have borders with the ocean, are in force. The document was adopted in order to limit the anthropogenic load on the reservoir and minimize its consequences for wildlife.

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