The Baltic Sea is an inland water area of Eurasia, which is located in northern Europe and belongs to the Atlantic basin. Water exchange with the oceans takes place through the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits. More than two hundred rivers flow into the sea. It is they who carry dirty water that flows into the water area. Pollutants have significantly worsened the sea’s ability to clean itself.
What substances pollute the Baltic Sea?
There are several groups of harmful substances that damage the Baltic. First of all, these are nitrogen and phosphorus, which are waste products of agriculture, industrial industry and are contained in the municipal wastewater of cities. These elements are processed in water only partially, emit hydrogen sulfide, which leads to the death of marine animals and plants.
The second group of hazardous substances are heavy metals. Half of these elements fall out with atmospheric precipitation, and a part with municipal and industrial wastewater. These substances lead to illness and death of many marine life.
The third group of pollutants is not alien to many seas and oceans this is an oil spill. A film of oil forms on the surface of the water, does not allow oxygen to pass through. This kills all marine plants and animals that are within the radius of the oil slick.
The main ways of pollution of the Baltic Sea:
What else is the contamination of the Baltic Sea?
In addition to industrial and communal pollution, there are more serious factors of the Baltic pollution. First of all, it is chemical. So after the Second World War, about three tons of a chemical weapon were dropped in the waters of this water area. It contains not just harmful substances, but extremely poisonous, which are deadly for sea flora and fauna.
Another problem is radioactive pollution. Many radionuclides come to the sea, which are dumped from various enterprises of Western Europe. In addition, after the Chernobyl accident accident, many radioactive substances were received in the water area, which also caused damage to the ecosystem.
All these pollutants led to the fact that there is practically no oxygen on the third of the water surface of the sea, which gave rise to such phenomena as the “death zone” with a high level of concentration of toxic substances. And in such conditions, not a single microorganism can exist.