Environmental problems of the Caspian Sea and ways to solve them

Today, the ecological state of the Caspian Sea is very difficult, it is on the verge of disaster. This ecosystem is changing due to the influence of both nature and man. Previously, the reservoir was rich in fish resources, but now some species of fish are under the threat of destruction. In addition, there is information about mass diseases of marine life, a reduction in spawning areas. Dead zones formed in separate sections of the shelf.

Constant sea level fluctuation

Another problem is sea level fluctuations, lowering of water, reduction of water surface areas and shelf zone. The amount of water that comes from rivers flowing into the sea has decreased. This was facilitated by the construction of hydraulic structures and the diversion of river water into reservoirs.

Samples of water and sediments from the bottom of the Caspian Sea show that the water area is polluted with phenols and various metals: mercury and lead, cadmium and arsenic, nickel and vanadium, barium, copper and zinc. The level of these chemical elements in the water exceeds all permissible limits, which significantly harms the sea and its inhabitants. Another problem is the formation of oxygen-free zones in the sea, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. In addition, the penetration of alien organisms damages the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. Previously, there was a kind of training ground for the introduction of new species.

Causes of environmental problems in the Caspian Sea

The above environmental problems of the Caspian arose for the following reasons:

  • overfishing;
  • construction of various structures on the water;
  • pollution of the water area by industrial and household waste;
  • the threat from the oil and gas, chemical, metallurgical, energy, agricultural complex of the economy;
  • activities of poachers;
  • other impacts on the marine ecosystem;
  • the absence of an agreement between the Caspian countries on the protection of the water area.
  • These harmful factors of influence have led to the fact that the Caspian Sea has lost the possibility of full-fledged self-regulation and self-purification. If you do not intensify activities aimed at preserving the ecology of the sea, it will lose its fish productivity and turn into a reservoir with dirty, waste water.

    The Caspian Sea is surrounded by several states, so the solution of the environmental problems of the reservoir should be a common cause of these countries. If you do not take care of the preservation of the Caspian ecosystem, then as a result, not only valuable water resources will be lost, but also many species of marine plants and animals.

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