The coal industry is one of the main sectors of the economy in many countries of the world. Coal is used as a fuel, for the manufacture of building materials, in medicine and the chemical industry. Its extraction, processing and use leads to environmental pollution.
The problem of coal mining
Many environmental problems begin even during the extraction of minerals. It is mined in mines, and these objects are explosive, as there is a possibility of coal fire. Also, during work underground, layers of soil settle, there is a danger of collapses, landslides occur. To avoid this, voids from which coal is excavated must be filled with other materials and rocks. In the process of coal mining, natural landscapes change, the soil cover is disturbed. No less is the problem of destruction of vegetation, because before mining, it is necessary to clear the territory.
Water and air pollution
When coal is mined, methane can be released, which pollutes the atmosphere. Ash particles and toxic compounds, solid and gaseous substances enter the air. Also, atmospheric pollution occurs during the combustion of fossil fuels.
Coal mining contributes to the pollution of water resources in the place where the deposit is located. Toxic trace elements, solids and acids seep into groundwater, rivers and lakes. They change the chemical composition of water, making it unsuitable for drinking, bathing and domestic use. Due to pollution of water areas, river flora and fauna are dying, and rare species are on the verge of extinction.
Consequences of pollution of the biosphere
The consequences of the coal industry are not only pollution of the biosphere, but also a negative impact on humans. Here are just a few examples of this influence:
The coal industry is developing in different countries of the world, however, in recent years, people are increasingly switching to alternative energy sources, since the harm from the extraction and use of this mineral is enormous. To reduce the risk of environmental pollution, it is necessary to improve the production methods of this industry and apply safe technologies.