The Indian Ocean occupies about 20% of the total area of the Earth covered with water. It is the third deepest body of water in the world. For many years, it has been under strong human impact, which negatively affects the composition of water, the life of representatives of oceanic flora and fauna.
Oil is one of the major pollutants in the Indian Ocean. It enters the water due to periodic accidents at coastal oil stations, as well as shipwrecks.
The Indian Ocean has a border with a number of countries in the Near and Middle East, where oil production is widely developed. The largest area rich in “black gold” is the Persian Gulf. Numerous routes of oil tankers to different parts of the world start from here. In the process of movement, even during normal operation, such ships can leave behind a greasy film on the water.
Leaks from land-based process pipelines and vessel flushing procedures also contribute to ocean oil pollution. When oil tankers are cleared of oil residues, the working water is discharged into the ocean.
The main route for household waste to enter the ocean is banal it is thrown from passing ships. Everything is here from old fishing nets to food bags. Moreover, very dangerous things are periodically found among the waste, like medical thermometers with mercury and the like. Also, municipal solid waste enters the Indian Ocean from flowing rivers or simply washed off the coast during storms.
Agricultural and industrial chemicals
One of the features of the pollution of the Indian Ocean is the large-scale ingress of chemicals used in agriculture and wastewater from enterprises into the water. This is due to the fact that countries located in the coastal zone have a “dirty” industry. Modern economic realities are such that many large companies from developed countries are building industrial sites on the territory of less developed countries and moving there types of industries that are distinguished by harmful emissions or not entirely safe technologies.
On the territory of some countries of the East, armed uprisings and wars periodically occur. When using the fleet, the ocean takes on additional load from warships. This class of ships is almost never subject to environmental control and causes great damage to nature.
In the course of hostilities, the same oil production facilities are often destroyed or ships carrying oil are sunk. The crashes of the warships themselves add to the negative impact on the ocean.
Impact on flora and fauna
Active transport and industrial human activity in the Indian Ocean inevitably affects its inhabitants. As a result of the accumulation of chemicals, the composition of water changes, which leads to the death of certain types of algae and living organisms.
The most famous ocean animals that have been nearly wiped out are the whales. For several centuries, the practice of whaling was so widespread that these mammals practically disappeared. From 1985 to 2010, cetacean rescue days, there was a moratorium on the capture of any species of whale. Today, the population has been somewhat restored, but it is still very far from the former number.
But the bird called “dodo” or “do-do bird” was out of luck. They were found on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and were completely exterminated in the 17th century.