Beaver family plants belong to dicotyledonous species. This is an extensive family, which includes various shrubs, trees and vines. The world has an extremely large number of these plants. At the moment, the family is presented about 20,000 species that are combined in 1000 births. The general sign of all legumes is the structure of the sheet and fetus.
Classification of legumes
Beaver family can be classified according to the method of use:
Almost all plants of the family are used in certain directions. Combines these groups high nutrition and rich composition. At the moment, these plants are one of the most popular.
Representatives of the Bobov family
Abarem represents the genus of large tropical shrubs and trees that belong to the Bobov family. This includes about 45 different representatives. The largest number of these plants grow in South America and South Asia. A large species diversity is observed in the Amazon basin. Bright green leaves with a glossy surface. The flowers have some similarity with the mimosa.
Anadenanter is a perennial tree that grows in the countries of the Caribbean and in South America. A distinctive feature of this tree is that it is covered with a thorny bark. In the height of the anadenanter can reach 20 meters. Flowers of pale yellow or pure white color. Gained in healing rituals and rituals.
Astral is a medicinal plant that is recognized as official pharmacopeia as a therapeutic plant. Astragal height reaches 40 centimeters. Brown-gray stems with a slight pubis, because of which they look shaggy. The leaves are complex and petiole. White flowers located on the tops of peduncles.
Caesalpinia is a genus that includes about 150 different varieties. This plant spread widely on the territory of Argentina, Uruguay, Southeast Asia and some areas of America. Caesalpines are found in the form of shrubs, small trees and vines. There are thorns on the branches. Orange-red flowers and have the appearance of dense inflorescences or panicles.
This plant is also known as Mpingo, Babanus and Grenadil. It has the appearance of a small tree, the branches of which are covered with spikes. White flowers and form dense inflorescences. Fruits look like pods with a length of up to 7 centimeters containing one or two seeds. Dalbergia spread in the territories of Africa.
Leutsena is a genus of plants, which includes about 25 different trees and shrubs. It grows in the southern territory of the United States, as well as in the countries of Central and South America. Leutzena leaves are characterized by a pleasant spicy aroma and taste, so they are widely used in the preparation of drinks.
Lucerne represents the genus of annual and perennial herbs and halfcash. At the moment, it combines about 103 different plants. Most of them grow in the Mediterranean region. Lucerne is a sowing culture, but in nature it is found in a wild form. The stem of the plant is straight with a height of up to 85 centimeters.
Arachis is ordinary
The structure of the Beaver family
The main feature of all legumes is the unique structure of the fetus. It has the form of a singletuned fruit with two sashes. Inside the bean, the seeds are attached to the walls in the amount of even through odd. Many species have multiseeded fruit, but plants are also found with a singleseeded fruit. With full maturation, the fetus opens at the seams. Beans can be completely different shapes and sizes. The largest fruit of the Enthada of the climbing. It is able to reach a height of one and a half meters. It is also the largest fruit of all available plants in the world.
Legumes are distinguished by an improper and double shape. They gather in the apical and axillary inflorescences, as well as in the brush or head. The number of flowers in the inflorescence can be different. Even plants are found with one flower. Motylovs have the most characteristic flower resembling a moth. Legumes flowers are most often bisexual, but some plants are endowed with samesex flowers. There are about 10 stamens inside them, which form 2 circles. Many bean stamens grow together, forming a tube unmarked on top, thanks to which insects easily mines nectar. Ginetium legumes consists in most cases of one fruiting. In the ovary, from 2 to 20 seeds are formed, but there are plants that have only one seven. The shape and size of the cup of plant plants also varies greatly. As a rule, plants have 5 petals.
The roots of legumes can have nodules. They differ in shape, and arise as an increase in parenchymic tissue of the clock.
Legal plant leaves are represented by a complex structure with stickers, which fall quite early. There are legumes with very large leaves. Sometimes they can be a secondly simplified, in which the only plate has the appearance of an unredated leaflet. These leaves are folded in half at night. At the base of the petiole, small thickenings are located in the form of pillows, which allow the ledes to bring in movements.
Cultural plants of legumes
The Bobov family includes a very large number of valuable crops. The most common of them is soy, lentils, peanuts, beans and peas. They differ in a large content of vegetable protein. For example, sowing peas have a very close protein content to meat. About 30 percent of protein forms in beans, and more than 40 percent in peanuts and soybeans and soybeans. Consider each culture in more detail:
Use peas to prepare various soups and cereals. The brain variety of this plant is customary to freeze and preserve. Sugar peas are eaten raw.
The beans have a large number of valuable organic acids, vitamins, trace elements, proteins and carotene. Such a variety of beneficial substances led to its widespread use in cooking. This product is dried and canned. The beans are cooked and eaten with a patch. Sugar, semisugar and lushpyl varieties also differ.
Soy is grown on a huge scale, and the number of sowing it takes first place in the area in the world. In Eurasia, soybeans are cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory and the Far East. The high value of this culture is that products similar to dairy are prepared from it. Union is also used as raw materials for the preparation of flour, which is suitable for people with diabetes mellitus. Independent dishes in many countries of the world are made from this product.
This plant is thermophilic, and first appeared in South America. The seeds of the peanuts give starch flour, which is similar to wheat. In America, ground peanuts are mixed with butter and obtained peanut paste.
The importance of legumes is extremely great for society, since their fruits are highly nutritious.
Wild plants of legumes
Among the wild bean plants, the Astrogals, camel spine, mouse peas, meadow rank, strawberry clover, blue alfalfa and a naked licorice received great fodder. Such wild plants such as cobraisia and sedge are used as sources for pasture feed.
A distinctive feature of varieties and species are considered torture, which allows the stems to maintain stability. This is very clearly visible from the thickets of forest ranks.
Value and use of legumes for humans
Legumes of importance and use can only be inferior only by Zlakov. Representatives of the bean family are not only famous for their food qualities. They are also divided into fodder, honey, decorative, medicinal and technical cultures. It is noteworthy that some plants of this family are a valuable source of wood.
Medical significance was received by such species of family plants as Japanese Sophora and Cassia. Rutin is received from Japanese Sophora. This plant is cultivated about 82 countries. Medical laxative is extracted from the pits and leaves of the Cassia, which acts very gently and painlessly.
The use of struggles in raw form helps to improve metabolism. Decoctions are made from the wings of the patching beans, which are widely used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, as well as with renal failure and rheumatism. A special decoction is also made from peas seeds, which causes a diuretic effect and stimulates the excretion of stones from the kidneys. Pea flour is used as a poultice from boils and carbunks. Soy is used for asthma and to reduce tumor growth. The use of beans allows you to lower the acidity of the stomach. It is notable for the fact that it retains useful qualities even in canned form.
The technical significance of legumed plants is due to the presence in their composition of various gums, balms, aromatic and coloring substances. Senegal acacia gum is used as raw materials to create coloring substances. From the fruits of a plant such as diphthelics, kumarin is extracted, which has the smell of hay. It is used for the production of toilet water and soap.
The most popular decorative plant of legumes is considered to be acacia and robbery. These American wood fruits are cultivated around the world. Today they adorn a large number of different gardens, parks and alleys.
Beaver family plants are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is widely used in the reclamation of land. Many species per year return to the soil about 140 kilograms of nitrogen. Also, the roots of legumed plants loosen the soil, so it becomes porous. This structure protects the surface from various external erosions.