Fish of the cod family a list of representatives and species, names and photos

Cod is a whole family of fish, which includes several hundred different types. Most often, these fish live in the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species of cod fish are objects of commercial hunting. The most common representatives of the family are: Piksha, Mintay, Navaga and cod. More exotic species include prayers, gadical and menk. The fish of the cod family played a significant role in human history, since they were fed by the Vikings, sailors and pioneers of the shores of the New World.

It is noteworthy that ancient fish cod in the Stone Age were much more dimensional than the current representatives. This discovery was made by paleontologists who studied the fossils of fish of this family.

Types of the cod family




Navaga Severnaya

Navaga Far Eastern


Putassa South

Putassa North


Pacific cod

Atlantic cod

Esmark cod

Polar cod

Gadicula (bigeyed cod)


Luska (Caplan, French cod)

Sea and freshwater cod fish

Literally all representatives of the family of cod fish are sea salt water fish. They can live in the waters of varying degrees of salinity. However, one freshwater representative is still. This fish is called burbot, as well as lake and river cod. Burbot adapted well to living in freshwater reservoirs and rivers. It is most often found in rivers and lakes of Europe, America and Asia. In Siberia, this fish is caught on a very large scale.

Men (burbot)

Characteristic and signs of cod

Cod fish have a number of common features, which is why they became representatives of the same family. These features include:

  • The presence of a large disproportionate head;
  • Large and expressive eyes;
  • The presence of a light strip that encircles the body of the fish;
  • Lack of prickly rays in fins;
  • Large holes for gills;
  • Small scales covering the body.
  • There is another feature that does not correspond to all types, this is the presence of a fleshy mustache in the lower jaw. Some fish of the cod family are covered with various spots.

    Cod lifestyle corresponds to its distribution area. Pacific cods lead mainly settled life, but can migrate at very small distances. The period of large cold weather they spend at a depth of up to 55 meters. In the summer they swim back closer to the coast.

    Atlantic cod lives in marine currents, so it can migrate for a rather long time. Some flocks of fish can organize swims from spawning grounds before feeding to a distance of up to 1.5 thousand kilometers.

    Nutrition of cod

    Representatives of the family of cod are predatory fish. As a rule, fish up to three years old feed on various crustaceans and plankton. Then they switch to small fish, such as a mowing, herring, sprats and saira. The cod is characterized by the phenomenon of cannibalism when the fish eat each other. The inhabitants of the Pacific Ocean feed on navaga, mollusks and worms. Also, fish can eat small invertebrates living at the bottom of the sea.

    Propagation period and life expectancy

    Sexually mature cod are 9 years old. However, pollocks are ready for offspring in 3-4 years. This period of fish is carried out in the spawning ground. Females begin to spawn at a depth of up to 100 meters. As a rule, this lasts for several weeks, since females mention the caviar portioned. The male spends this time with the female, fertilizing the deferred eggs. One female is able to sweep up to 6 million eggs. At the Pacific cod, the caviar settles on bottom plants, and in the Atlantic it is carried away by the current to the north.

    The average life expectancy is 25 years.

    Useful properties of cod fish

    The benefits of the liver of the quantity

    The cod liver is the object of a dispute between many doctors and nutritionists. One part of people determines it for offal, and the other to a delicious dish. However, the benefits of cod are undeniable, since useful fish oil is prepared from it. The product itself has a fairly high nutritional value, and with proper canning, it will delight with an unsurpassed taste.

    The benefits of the cod liver are also due to the fact that it does not undergo heat treatment at any stage of production. She enters the shelves raw, so she does not lose any useful properties. The most important and useful element of cod liver is omega 3, which plays an integral role in the normal functioning of the body.

    The benefits of caviar caviar

    The beneficial properties of cod caviar were open in distant antiquity. In terms of quality cod, it is in no way inferior to expensive versions of red and black sturgeon caviar. It is actively used in cooking to make delicious and healthy dishes.

    The most unique component in the cavity caviar is the Omega 3 amino acids group. In addition, the fish contains natural antioxidants, the regular use of which positively affects the health of teeth, skin and hair, and also strengthens the immunity and nervous system.

    On store shelves, a wide variety of cavity options are presented, which are available in price and contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals.

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