Foxes or, as they are also called, foxes belong to the type of mammals, the family of dogs. Not surprising, but representatives of this family are as many as 23 species. Although outwardly all the foxes are very similar, but, nevertheless, have many features and differences.
General characteristic of foxes
A fox is a predatory animal with a pointed face, a small, impressed head, large standing ears and a long tail with elongated wool. The fox is a very unpretentious animal, it takes root perfectly in any natural environment, feels great on all the ongoing continents of the planet.
Leads mainly a night lifestyle. To cover and remove offspring, he uses holes or recesses in the ground, cleft between the rocks. Food depends on the habitat, small rodents, birds, eggs, fish, various insects, berries and fruits go to food.
Separate branches of foxes
Scientists distinguish between three separate branches of foxes:
Types of fox branch Vulpes
The branch of ordinary foxes has 4.5 million. the largest number of species 12 years old 12, can be found on all the ongoing continents of the planet. A characteristic difference of all representatives of this branch are sharp, triangular ears, narrow muzzle, flat head, long and fluffy tail. There is a small dark mark on the bridge of the nose, the end of the tail differs from the general color scheme.
Vulpes branch includes the following types:
Ordinary fox (Vulpes vulpes)
The most common species, in our time, there are over 47 different subspecies. An ordinary fox on all continents is widespread, it was brought to Australia from Europe, where she took root and master.
The upper body of this fox has a bright orange, rusty, silver or gray color, the bottom of the body is white with small dark marks on the muzzle and paws, the tail of the tail is white. The body reaches in length-70-80 cm, tail-60-85 cm, weight-8-10 kg.
Bengal or Indian Fox (Vulpes Bengalensis)
Foxes of this category inhabit the open spaces of Pakistan, India, Nepal. For life, they choose steppes, semideserts and editoris. Wool-short, red-sand coloring, red-brown paws, tail tip-black. 55-60 cm is reached in length, the tail is relatively small-only 25-30 cm, weight-2-3 kg.
South African Fox (Vulpes Chama)
Lives on the African continent in Zimbabwe and Angola, in the steppes and deserts. It differs in the red-brown color of the upper half of the body with a silver-gray strip along the spine, stomach and paws-white, the tail ends with a black brush, there is no dark mask on the muzzle. Length-40-50 cm, tail-30-40 cm, weight-3-4.5 kg.
Resident of the steppes of Southeast Eurasia, Central Asia, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Manchuria. The length of the body is up to 60 cm, weight-2-4 kg, tail-up to 35 cm. Red-sand coloring is white or white or light-sand from below, from an ordinary fox is characterized by wider cheekbones.
Lives high in the mountains, in the steppes of Nepal and Tibet. Its characteristic feature is a large and thick collar made of thick and short wool, the muzzle is wider and square. The wool is light gray on the sides, redhead on the back, a tail with a white brush. Reaches in length 60-70 cm, weight-up to 5.5 kg, tail-30-32 cm.
African fox (Vulpes Pallida)
Lives in the deserts of the northern part of Africa. The legs of this fox are thin and long, thanks to which it is perfectly adapted to walk on the sands. The body is thin, 40-45 cm, covered with short red hair, a small head with large, pointed ears. Tail up to 30 cm with a black brush, a dark mark on the muzzle does not have.
Sand Fox (Vulpes Rueppellii)
This fox can be found in Morocco, Somalia, Egypt, Afghanistan, Cameroon, Nigeria, Chade, Congo, Sudan. Habitats chooses deserts. The woolen color is quite light-pale red, light sand, dark marks in the form of pouches around the eyes. Has long paws and large ears, thanks to which it regulates heat exchangers in the body. It reaches 45-53 cm in length, weight-up to 2 kg, tail-30-35 cm.
American Korsak (Vulpes Velox)
Resident of the prairies and steppes of the southern part of the North American continent. The color of the wool is unusually saturated: it has a red-red tint, the legs are darker, a tail 25-30 cm, very fluffy with a black tip. Reaches 40-50 cm in length, weight-2-3 kg.
Afghan Fox (Vulpes Cana)
Lives in the mountainous regions of Afghanistan, Belujistan, Iran, Israel. Body dimensions are small up to 50 cm in length, weight up to 3 kg. The color of the wool is dark red with dark tanks, in winter it becomes more saturated-with a brown tint. The soles of the folders have no wool, so the beast moves perfectly along the mountains and steep slopes.
Vulpes Zerda (Vulpes Zerda)
Inhabitant of the cave deserts of North Africa. It differs from other species with a small muzzle and a relatively short, snub nose. Is the owner of huge, lifted by the ears. The color is creamy yellow, the brush on the tail is dark, the muzzle is light. A very heatloving predator, at a temperature of less than 20 degrees, begins to freeze. Weight up to 1.5 kg, length up to 40 cm, tail up to 30 cm.
Arctic fox or polar fox (Vulpes (ALOPEX) LAGOPUS)
Some scientists attribute this type of fox. Lives in the tundra and a podolyar. The color of the foxes can be of two types: “blue”, which in reality has a silver-white color, which changes to the brown and “white”, in the summer, becoming brownish in the summer. In length, the beast reaches 55 cm, weight up to 6 kg, fur with a thick height, very dense.
Types of the fox of the branch Urocyon, or gray foxes
The gray fox branch lives on the planet for more than 6 million. years, outwardly they are very similar to ordinary foxes, although there is no genetic kinship between them.
The following types are ranked to this branch:
Gray fox (Urocyon Cinereargenteus)
Lives in North America and some regions of the southern. The wool has a gray-silver color with small reddish tanks, red-brown paws. Tail up to 45 cm, red and fluffy, a strip of longer black fur runs along its upper edge. In length foxes reaches 70 cm. Weight-3-7 kg.
Ostrovian Fox (Urocyon Littoralis)
Range of residence channel islands near California. It is considered the smallest type of fox, the body length does not exceed 50 cm, and weight 1.2–2.6 kg. The appearance is the same as that of the gray fox, the only difference is that for this species are exclusively insects.
More fox (Otocyon megalotis)
Found in the steppes of Zambia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Africa. The color of the woolen cover varies from smoky to dark red. Paws, ears and strip on the back black. The limbs are thin and long, adapted to fast running. It eats insects and small rodents for food. Its distinctive feature is a weak jaw, the number of teeth in the mouth 46-50.
Types of the fox of the Dusicyon branch (South American foxes)
The South American branch is represented by representatives living in the territory of South and Latin America this is the youngest branch, its age does not exceed 3 million. years, and representatives are close relatives of the wolves. Habitat South America. The color of the wool is most often gray with red tan. The head is narrow, the nose is long, the ears are large, the tail is fluffy.
Types that belong to the Dusicyon branch
Andian Fox (Pseudalopex) Culpaeus)
Is the inhabitant of the And. In length can reach up to 115 cm, weight up to 11 kg. The upper body of the body is gray-black, with gray ends, loads and stomach-red. At the end of the tail a black brush.
South American fox (Dusicyon (Pseudalopex) Griseus)
Lives in the pampas of Rio Neogro, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina. Reaches 65 cm, weighs up to 6.5 kg. Outwardly resembles a small wolf: the wool is silver-gray, the paws are light sand, the muzzle is pointed, the tail is short, not very fluffy, when walking is lowered.
Sexyon fox (Pseudalopex) Secchurae)
Its habitat is the deserts of Peru and Ecuador. The wool has a light gray, with black endings on the tips, the tail is fluffed with a black tip. It reaches 60-65 cm in length, weighs-5-6.5 kg, tail length-23-25 cm.
Brazilian fox (Dusicyon vetulus)
The color of this resident of Brazil is quite remarkable: the upper body is darker silver-black, the stomach and breast are smoky-suture, a dark strip passes along the upper side of the tail, ending with a black tip. The wool is short and thick. The nose is relatively short, the head is small.
Can be found in Chile and on the island of Chiso. Is an endangered look, so it is protected in the National Park of Naulbut. The color of the wool on the back is gray, the lower part of the body of the milk. Tail 26 cm, fluffy with a black brush, the legs are short. Reaches 60 cm in length, weight-1.5-2 kg.
Inhabits the Savani and the forests of South America, very much resembles a small wolf. Her wool has a gray-brown color, the tip of the tail is white. Small head, nose is short, pointed ears. Reaches 65-70 cm in length, weighs-5-7 kg.
ShortUr fox (Dusicyon (Atelocynus)
For life, he chooses tropical forests in the basin of the Amazon and Orinoko rivers. The color of the wool of this fox is gray-brown, with a lighter tint in the lower body. Distinctive feature short ears that have a rounded shape. The paws are short, adapted to walk between high vegetation, because of this its gait seems a little feline. Small mouth with small and sharp teeth.