Gum animals are usually attributed to mammals, which are included in the subordinate of the greenhouses. This subordinate has several families, all animals of which are distinguished by a very peculiar and complex digestive system. And their stomach is divided into four parts:
In its main department Rubts there are symbiotic bacteria, the task of which is the fermenting of cellulose with intracellular protozoa. And ruminants freely digest some part of these bacteria to be able to get animals protein.
In this regard, the gums have an unusual structure of the teeth they have no upper incisors, and instead a dense roller from a corpuscy body is formed, and the teeth themselves are adapted to grind gum feed.
Types of gum animals
Features of gum
The main and main feature of the gum is their digestive system and fourchamber stomachs (however, for example, a camel and Olenkovs can boast of a threechamber stomach). In this regard, animals of this family eat grass in huge quantities and quickly accumulating eaten in the first section, where food softens. Later this material chewing gum is erupted and chewed, crushed by animals, because cellulose is difficult to digest. Then the gum is sent to other departments, where it is further processed by microorganisms.
Six families of greenhouses belongs to chewing mammals:
More than 160 species of ungulates of different sizes and sizes are customary to attribute to the subordinate:
The physique in animals of this submarine is different from small to large, mostly all of them are slim with long limbs equipped with two or four fingers. Moreover, the final phalanges of the fingers are formed in hooves. But the side fingers are underdeveloped in their bulk and do not participate when walking without touching the soil.
In these animals, sexual demorfism is usually pronounced males are equipped with horns. And most of the species of ruminants are equipped with special skin glands located on the head, and in the groin, and on the legs.
Gum animals and structure
Morphological and functionally gastric gum system consists of four departments (a scar 57%, a net 7%, a book 20%, Sichug 11%). The first three are not equipped with glands and perform the functions of the socalled premarine in which the food is processed both mechanically and bacterial.
The walls of such a prejudice are formed by three shell childbirths:
The process of digestion is also very interesting for gum it is quite peculiar in that it works with chewing gum, including the following points:
Almost all ruminants are characterized by a special structure of the upper jaw there are no incisors, and instead of them a solid roller of the transverse format is formed, and the indigenous teeth are equipped with special folds of enamel, forming the holes.
In connection with a special digestive system, the gum is a very long intestine, and the mammary glands are formed in the udder with several nipples, located in the groin zone.
Most types of gum are characterized by the presence of horns of various shapes and structures usually they are located on the frontal bones in males (and not only).
Typically, the metacarpal bones of the fingers of these animals are fought in a single array, due to which, together with a certain reproduction of the bones of the forearm and the lower leg, the limb is distinguished by a core structure. It is this structure that has been developed as an excellent run to run.
Usually ruminants do not care about thorough chewing the feed that they eat usually this process passes superficially. After all, it takes place the main processing in one of the departments of the stomach a scar and there the food is brought into a state of perfect small consistency. It is for this purpose that animals constantly chew gum, burping food into the oral cavity.
Such nutrition and structure of the stomach is due, first of all, by the peculiarity of digestion of feed (usually physico-chemical), as well as the number of nutrient and mineral substances necessary for the animal.
Such a device is ideal for the assimilation of organic substances namely, for translating them into simpler soluble compounds of a low molecular weight form. And to provide all this, the livestock should perfectly know the digestive process.
For cattle, coarse livestock with wellabsorbed and digestible protein is simply necessary but having a low solubility in the scar. After all, the most of the feed will turn into a bacterial protein, the higher the value of such a feed for the animal.
And the main ingredients of animal feed from the gum group are considered grain, bran as a source of energy, as well as corn flour, alfalfa, oilcake, cellulose and even grain shells.
The value of the gum
Any chewing animal is not a predator, and is not able to protect themselves from opponents who chose them with a link of their food chain. And, to survive, gum learned to get and assimilate on the run. And only then digest it.
In fact, it is ruminant that are characterized by the presence of significant and wide sources of food, unlike the same predators. And this group of animals has symbiotic digestion (and the maximum among all vertebrates) to help the highly effective use of food. And it is precisely such digestion, when endosimbionts (bacteria, fungi) located in the mesh stomach are involved in the breakdown of food, as well as in the process of hydrolysis of feed.
And a huge number of animals of this group are saved by humanity after all, among them there are not only sources of food for people, but also dragging, freight forces. In fact, the meaning of the gum for humanity is difficult to underestimate after all, we all always encounter them in everyday life.
On the geological scene, ruminants began to appear in time immemorial, even in Eocene as small forms, which in that era occupied a fairly insignificant place in the fauna. And now this species of animals is the most numerous group of ungulates, which is even far away to the fullest.