Geology methods and problems | What geology is studying | The meaning of geology

Geology is a science that studies the structure of planet Earth, as well as all the processes taking place in its structure. Separate definitions indicate the totality of several sciences. But be that as it may, geologists are engaged in the study of the structure of the Earth, the intelligence of minerals and many other interesting things.

How geology appeared?

It so happened that the term “history of geology” itself already represents a separate science. Among its tasks is the study of the patterns of the development of areas of knowledge related to geology, studying the process of accumulation of professional knowledge and other. The geology itself arose gradually as humanity reaches a certain scientific baggage.

One of the dates of the formation of modern geological sciences is 1683. Then, in London, for the first time in the world they decided to apply the location of soil types and valuable minerals to the country’s map. Active study of the earth’s subsoil began in the second half of the 18th century, when the developing industry required a large number of minerals. A great contribution to the geology of that time was made by the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, who published his scientific works “The Word about the birth of metals from the shaving of the earth” and “On the layers of the earth”.

The first detailed geological map, which covered the territory of a decent square, appeared in 1815. It was composed by the English archaeologist Ulyam Smith, who marked the mountain layers. Later, with the accumulation of scientific knowledge, scientists began to distinguish many elements in the structure of the earth’s crust, creating the corresponding maps.

Even later, separate sections began to be released in geology, with clearly limited scope of study mineralogy, volcanology and others. Understanding the importance of the knowledge gained, as well as the need to develop research technologies, scientists have created universities, institutions and international organizations engaged in a comprehensive study of our planet.

What geologists study?

Geologists are engaged in several main directions:

  1. The study of the structure of the Earth.

Our planet is extremely complicated in its device. Even an unprepared person may notice that the surface of the planet is very different, depending on the place. In two points, the distance between which is 100-200 meters, the appearance of the soil, stones, the structure of the rocks, etc. may differ.D. Even more features are contained “inside”.

During the construction of buildings and, especially underground structures, it is extremely important to know what is under the surface of the Earth on a particular territory. It is possible that it is impossible to build anything here or dangerous. A set of works on the reconnaissance of the relief, soil composition, the structure of the earth’s crust and the receipt of such information is called engineering and geological surveys.

  1. Search for minerals

Under the upper layer, consisting of soil and stone blocks, there are a huge number of cavities filled with various minerals water, oil, gas, minerals. For many centuries, a person has been extracting these fossils for his needs. Among other things, geologists are engaged in the reconnaissance of the location of ore deposits, oil and other natural gifts.

  1. Collection of information about dangerous phenomena

There are extremely dangerous things inside the Earth, for example, magma. This is a melt with a huge temperature that can go out during the eruption of volcanoes. Geology helps predict the beginning and place of eruptions in order to protect people.

Also, geological surveys allow you to detect voids in the earth’s crust, which in the future can collapse. Collapse in the earth’s crust, as a rule, is accompanied by an earthquake.

Modern geology

Today, geology is a developed science with a large number of professional centers. There are a large number of research institutes in many countries of the world. Modern construction is increasingly necessary for the services of geologists, since complex structures are created underground parking lots, warehouses, metro, bomb shelters and so on.

A separate “industry” of modern geology is military geology. Subjects and technologies of study here are the same, but goals are subordinated to the desire to organize the defense of the country. Thanks to military geologists, there is the possibility of erecting thoughtful military facilities with huge combat potential.

How to become a geologist?

With an increase in construction volumes, as well as the needs for minerals, there was an increase in the need for qualified specialists. Today, geological specialties are in many educational institutions, both secondary and higher education.

Studying a geologist, students receive not only theoretical knowledge, but also go to training training grounds, where they work out actions to drill research and other professional works.

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