German Shepherd: all about the dog, description and photo of the breed


  • Country of origin: Germany
    The size
    55-68 cm
    The weight
    25–40 kg
    8–10 years
    FCI breed group
    herding and cattle dogs, except Swiss cattle dogs
  • Brief information

  • one of the most trainable dog breeds;
  • smart and disciplined;
  • reckless and full of energy;
  • get along well with other pets and children;
  • excellent companion dogs, can accompany visually impaired and blind people;
  • as detectives they successfully serve the army and the police, they also guard houses and special objects, they can graze cattle.
    1. Pros and Cons of a German Shepherd
    2. Description of the breed
    3. Head
    4. Eyes
    5. Ears
    6. Neck
    7. Frame
    8. Tail
    9. limbs
    10. Gait
    11. wool cover
    12. Color
    13. Size and weight
    14. The nature of the German Shepherd
    15. Raising and training a German Shepherd
    16. Maintenance and care
    17. Food
    18. German Shepherd Health
    19. History reference
    20. Photo of a German Shepherd
    21. Who is this breed for?
    22. How to choose a puppy
    23. Photo of German Shepherd puppies
    24. german shepherd cost
    25. Video
    26. German Shepherd in one picture

    German shepherd a large dog with excellent working characteristics. Such animals can cope with the duties of the shepherd and help the work of the police, the border troops and customs units. The breed was obtained by breeders as a result of crossing several varieties of gurt dogs.

    At the moment, the German shepherd is one of the most popular breeds in the world.

    Pros and cons of the German shepherd

    The main advantages of such dogs include:

  • high level of intelligence;
  • learning;
  • quick adaptation to any conditions;
  • good security qualities;
  • equilibrium;
  • Friendliness for people and other pets.
  • From the deficiencies of the breed is distinguished:

  • the need for training;
  • the need for regular active walks;
  • a lot of wool during molting;
  • Large size.
  • Description of the breed

    German shepherd a large and strong animal. To date, there are two types of such dogs long-haired and smooth-haired.

    German Shepherd: all about the dog, description and photo of the breed

    Pets are characterized by excellent learning ability. They can perform the most difficult tricks with ease. Resistant to cold due to dense undercoat.

    The combination of many positive qualities makes this breed one of the most versatile. It is used in the work of various government services.

    The animal has a large head. Its length according to the standard should be 40% of the height of the dog at the withers. Elongated muzzle. The forehead is straight, its central part is slightly convex. Stop is weak.

    In appearance, the head of a German shepherd is very similar to a wolf. It is believed that the expression of the muzzle in males and females is different. The former always look more powerful. Females tend to have a softer facial expression.

    Classic shaped nose. Only black. No dividing line. Nostrils medium size, open.

    The jaw is very strong. Standard bite scissor bite. In an adult, the dentition consists of 42 teeth. Straight bite and undershot are a marriage.


    The eyes of a medium sized German Shepherd. Form almond-shaped. Color must be brown. Set slightly oblique. There is no bulge. Light eye color is considered a defect. The presence of small black eyebrows near the bridge of the nose is allowed. Eyelids dry, well pigmented.


    The ears of German Shepherds are large, triangular. At the base wide. In adults, they are rigid. Their fur is thick and dense. The inner surface of the ears is bald. Location strictly vertical. At rest or while running, the dog may lay them back.

    Initially, German Shepherd puppies are born with soft ears, but they should be staging by six months of age. If this does not happen, then the dog is considered defective.


    The neck of such animals is large and mobile. The muscles are well expressed. Its length according to the standard should be 35% of the height of the dog’s withers. Perfect tilt 45 degrees. The neck of the neck is not a standard parameter and may vary from 50 to 55 cm. The wool on it is very thick and voluminous.


    The body of the German shepherd is characterized by large dimensions. It looks slightly stretched. Back line ­- falling, from scruff to the cereal. The withers look strong and massive. The back is always wide and strong. The wool on it is thick and relatively long. The chest is long and wide. Her ribs are elongated. 


    The tail of the German shepherd is thick and long. According to the standard, he must reach the ankles. A very lowset tail is considered a significant defect.

    In the process of movement, it is always omitted. Bent tail in the form of a hook is considered a significant defect. Such dogs cannot participate in exhibitions. 


    The paws of the German Shepherd are large and powerful. Both front and hind limbs are parallel to each other. Shoulder blades and humerus the same length. Hind legs always slightly apart. Their thighs look powerful and muscular. The toes on the front paws are longer and larger. At the rear more compact. The claws are almost invisible due to the long hair. Their color is always black.


    The nature of the movements of such a dog is sweeping and free. They move very actively, jumping a little while running or walking. The step is always wide. The preferred gait for this breed is the trot.

    The reaction of German shepherds is instant, if necessary, they can reach speeds of up to 50 km / h.

    Only a properly built animal will be able to move as the breed standard suggests. The hind limbs push the body forward, and the front limbs direct the body in the right direction.

    wool cover

    The coat of German Shepherds is very thick, two-layered. There is a parting on the back. The undercoat is thick and voluminous. The outer hair is stiff. On the chest of German shepherds a thick mane. Feathers on legs and tail.


    According to the generally accepted color standard, such a breed can have only three:

  • black-backed;
  • zone;
  • black.
  • All other types of colors are considered breed defects.

    The first one is classic. It is the black and red German Shepherds that are the most common. In this case, the lower part of the dog’s torso is colored red, the back is black. The main part of the muzzle is also red. The black mask captures the nose, ears and eyes. The standard also allows the presence of beige, fawn and chocolate shades.

    Zonary color always looks unusual. These dogs are a bit like wolves. This coloration is considered rare and occurs only in 5% of pets. At the base, the coat of dogs is always light, at the ends dark. The most intensely colored back and tail. Any shade is acceptable from beige to brown.  

    Completely black German Shepherds are a rarity. Inclusions of a different shade in this case are considered a defect.

    Size and weight

    Dimensions of German Shepherds are impressive. Experts classify such dogs as “heavyweights”. The weight of an adult varies from 25 to 40 kg. Height at the withers 55-68 cm. Males are always bigger.

    The nature of the German Shepherd

    These pets are smart and smart. They are very devoted to their owner. These dogs are mentally stable.

    The desire for independence and stubbornness is not characteristic of them. German Shepherds learn new information very quickly, learn commands without any problems. They love active games in nature. The noise in the apartment does not scare them, they are calm about parties and holidays. Tolerant of children. They get along well with other pets, especially if they grew up with them.

    The temperament of such animals is closer to choleric. They are extremely active and mobile.

    When walking in crowded places, the dog must be kept on a short leash and muzzled. German Shepherds are primarily guards, always ready to protect their owner. Some excessively harsh actions of others may be regarded by them as a threat, and dogs may pounce on people. Although aggression without a reason is unusual for them.

    These animals can play the role of:

  • guide;
  • watchman;
  • nannies for a child;
  • search engine;
  • lifeguard;
  • policeman;
  • shepherd.
  • The main feature of German Shepherds is the instant execution of any commands of the owner. If a strong connection and mutual understanding is established between the owner and the dog, then they are able to understand each other literally from a half-word. It is this quality that makes German Shepherds good police dogs. There are cases when these animals saved people’s lives. They are able to confidently behave in force majeure situations and instantly respond to danger.

    Dog training should start at an early age. Socialization is also very important for German Shepherds. Communication with other animals and people is an important component of training and education. Otherwise, the dog will grow up closed and shy.

    Aggressiveness is considered a breed defect. Nervous and unfriendly dogs are immediately rejected at exhibitions and competitions.

    Raising and training a German Shepherd

    It is necessary to educate and train a dog at an early age. As soon as the pet has adapted to the new home, you can start learning elementary commands.

    Since German Shepherds have a high level of intelligence, they learn everything new very quickly. Despite this, the learning process should never be left to chance. Training should be regular and systematic. Otherwise, the character of the pet may change for the worse the dog will become stubborn and naughty. Retraining a pet on your own is very difficult. The best option is to turn to professionals.

    In the first months of life, the training of German shepherds is built in the form of a game. So the dog will quickly learn new actions and will not get tired in the process of training. Already at this time it is worth starting to introduce active types of games and obedience exercises.

    The owner in the process of conducting training must show firmness of character and perseverance. If you give up slack, then the animal will immediately understand that you can not work at full strength or even refuse to complete orders. This is especially true for German Shepherd dogs. They are always more stubborn and wayward.

    The owner must constantly demonstrate his authority. Only in this case, the pet will unquestioningly obey him. If in the process of training there are concerns that the puppy behaves too independently, then it is better to seek help from specialists.

    German Shepherd: all about the dog, description and photo of the breed

    The process of training a German Shepherd should include:

  • toilet training;
  • mastering the basic set of commands.
  • The basic principle that should underlie training is consistency. It is impossible to start mastering a new team until the old one has been properly worked out. If the dog disobeyed, and the owner reacted indifferently to this, then the dog will accept such behavior as the norm. Now he will execute commands only when he wants to.

    It is necessary to accustom a pet to a collar and a leash from an early age. At first, you can wear them at home.

    The main set of commands include:

  • “To me!»;
  • “Place!»;
  • “It is forbidden!»;
  • “Beside!»;
  • “Sit!»;
  • “Lie!»;
  • “Walk!»;
  • “Aport!».
  • Service German shepherds are taught a wider complex of skills and skills.

    Don’t exercise too long. Training should last only as long as you can keep the dog’s attention. As soon as the dog begins to get distracted, it is better to stop the process and take a break. The recommended training time for adults is 30-35 minutes, for puppies 15-20. Regularity is very important. There shouldn’t be long breaks. Ideally, you need to train with your pet every day.

    Rewards during training are very important. To do this, you can use various delicacies. Experts advise not to feed a German shepherd before starting training. Punishments are not welcome. Do not yell loudly at the dog and even more so beat it. This can damage the animal’s psyche for a long time. The dog will stop trusting the person and move away from him.

    German Shepherd needs to be weaned:

  • sleep on the master’s bed;
  • damage furniture and other things;
  • bite and bark;
  • jump on people;
  • eat out of your own bowl.
  • Owners of such dogs should always take into account that the psychological maturity of this breed comes quite late by about three years. Until that time, the dog remains a vulnerable and very susceptible pet, requiring constant care and affection.

    Maintenance and care

    The voluminous and dense coat of the pet allows him to live both at home and on the street. In the winter season, such a dog in the aviary will not freeze. Although a warm dog house is necessary in any case. The enclosure should be protected from snow and rain with a special canopy. If necessary, this design can be removable.

    As soon as a German Shepherd puppy has appeared in the house, he needs to be shown his personal place. For the dog, you need to purchase a warm bed, your own bowl, a leash and a collar.

    The sleeping place can be organized in the form of an ordinary insulated rug. The lounger should not be located near a balcony or window. Even dogs with thick hair are afraid of drafts. Ideally, there should be several such beddings. Since the dog actively sheds, they will have to be washed often. It is recommended to purchase sunbeds made of materials that are quick and easy to clean.

    In order for the animal not to spoil furniture and shoes, he should buy a sufficient number of special toys.

    The thick coat of a German Shepherd needs to be brushed regularly. For this, a special brush is usually used. You can buy this item at the pet store. A regular comb is not suitable for this purpose.

    German Shepherd: all about the dog, description and photo of the breed

    Physical health is also very important for an animal. The dog needs to be taken for a walk regularly. Such dogs love active games in nature, they will be interested in walking through the forest, fishing, picnic.

    German Shepherds must be active. From constant lying on the couch, such an animal will quickly lose its shape. The favorite game of such dogs is overcoming obstacles. You can engage in such training from the age of 4 months.

    Nails trimmed as needed. Typically, this procedure is required for a dog no more than once a month. To do this, use special wire cutters or scissors. It is necessary to wash the dog as little as possible only as the coat gets dirty.

    It is not recommended to clean the ears of a German shepherd on your own. If the animal does not show any concern, then it is better not to touch them at all. It is necessary to contact a specialized clinic when the dog begins to actively scratch them, expressing dissatisfaction.

    Small accumulations of mucus in the corners of the eyes are considered normal. It is not necessary to clean them several times a day.

    To clean tooth enamel, experts advise using special brushes and pastes products for people are not suitable for dogs.


    Making the right diet is an important component of a healthy pet life. For a German Shepherd, the best option would be to choose a specialized type of food dry food. The range of such products is now very wide. This food is completely balanced. Additional purchase of vitamins and nutritional supplements in this case is not required.

    It is not advised to change the selected brand of food. This will help avoid digestive problems. A change in diet can cause diarrhea or, conversely, constipation.

    Dry food is much easier to store than natural food. This does not require the use of refrigerators. In addition, such food is completely ready to eat. For those who like to travel, dry food can be a real salvation they can be transported over any distance without refrigeration.

    The diet should be very carefully planned. Dogs should never be overfed. This will instantly lead to a set of excess weight. An adult should have only two meals. Puppies have more of them 3-6. Snacks are best avoided. You should also not feed your pet with food from the table. These products are not suitable for pets. In particular, sweet, starchy and smoked foods should be avoided. Meals should be regular ­– the pet should be fed at the same time.

    You can teach your dog to dry food from 4 months old. At this age, it is better for the animal to pre-soak it in water or broth. This will allow the stomach and intestines to quickly adapt to a new type of food.

    To calculate the daily calorie intake, you can use the following formula:

    Calorie rate \u003d 30 x (weight, kg) + 70

    In addition, be sure to read the instructions on the package. Manufacturers always indicate the calorie content of the product in a special table. This information will allow you to quickly calculate the rate for a particular dog. 

    If you choose such a diet, do not forget about water. To do this, you need to purchase a separate bowl. Access to it should be free at any time of the day.

    German Shepherd: all about the dog, description and photo of the breed

    German Shepherd Health

    Representatives of this breed are especially difficult to endure the advent of old age. On average, German Shepherds live up to 13 years old, dogs that have reached the age of 17 are considered centenarians. It is during this period that the animal may develop a number of diseases associated with pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular and digestive systems.

    The most common types of diseases of such pets include:

  • hip dysplasia;
  • sensitive gastrointestinal tract;
  • umbilical hernia.
  • Dysplasia in dogs can be detected at a young age. Experts advise to take an x-ray at 4 months and find out if he has a predisposition to this type of disease. If diagnosed early, dysplasia can be cured.

    Puberty in German Shepherds occurs at the age of one and a half years. The first estrus in females begins at 6-12 months. If the owner plans to acquire healthy and strong offspring, then it is necessary to wait for the third estrus. The optimal age for the first pregnancy is 2-4 years. Males are not advised to knit before 18 months of age.

    To prevent infectious diseases in pets, it is necessary to regularly clean the room where they live. The air humidity must also be within the normal range. Systematic walks in the fresh air will help to form the immunity of the animal.

    The main indicator of a dog’s health is its good appetite and excellent mood. If the pet began to behave unusually, fell into depression, stopped eating, then this is a serious reason to go to the hospital.

    The symptoms of the disease include:

  • lethargy and lethargy;
  • liquid stool or its absence;
  • hair loss and bald patches;
  • cloudy eyes;
  • pus in the ears.
  • History reference

    Scientists have identified two main centers of origin of this breed Scandinavia and the North-Western part of Russia. According to some versions, an Indian wolf participated in the breeding work on the creation of this animal. 

    The cultural breed of these dogs has existed for no more than 100 years. Prior to this, German Shepherds existed as native animals, breeding on their own. They were originally bred as herding dogs.

    The official appearance of the breed is associated with the name of Max Emil Frederick von Stephanitz. It was this man who created a completely universal type of animal, combining the best qualities of herd animals.

    The first representative of this breed a dog named Greif had an unusual off-white color. It was presented to the audience at an exhibition in 1899.

    The original function of such a dog is to guard the herd. When the number of livestock decreased, breeders began to look for new uses for German Shepherds. So, in 1901, the club of breed lovers, together with the police, organized tests for such dogs. As a result of this work, two years later, the basic rules for animal training were published.

    In 1914, demonstration events were organized by the club, showing how a German Shepherd can help military personnel.

    During the First World War, such dogs began to be actively used at the front.

    World War II took a toll on the dog industry. It was possible to save only a small number of purebred representatives of the breed. After the end of hostilities, the animal population began to gradually increase. In connection with the division of Germany into two parts, each of them had its own breeders engaged in the revival of German shepherds.

    In 2002, breeders were divided into two warring camps. Some tried to breed a dog with an aesthetic appearance. And others paid more attention to the functional features of the dogs. Great interest in the exterior has led to the fact that the dogs have been largely lost their working qualities.

    Currently, there are also representatives of these subgroups the working class and the show class of dogs. The former resemble those animals that were originally bred they are mobile and active. The second is larger and more massive. Differ in calmness and balance. It is these dogs that are more suitable for keeping in city apartments.

    Who is this breed for?

    This breed is suitable for the following categories of people:

  • outdoor enthusiasts;
  • owners of country houses;
  • couples with children;
  • visually impaired people.
  • For those who have never dealt with dogs, it is better not to have such a dog. The German Shepherd needs an owner who will regularly train and educate him. In the case of the visually impaired, the situation is different they are usually provided with an already trained pet.

    The best place to live for such an animal is a country house with a large fenced area. The dog needs a lot of space. She loves active and outdoor games on the street. If the dog lives in a city apartment, then he needs to be walked regularly.

    For the elderly and adolescents, the German Shepherd is hardly suitable. Do not buy it and very busy people. Before you get a pet, think about whether you can give him enough attention.

    How to choose a puppy

    First you need to decide on the main question what is the purpose of acquiring a dog.

    The German Shepherd can be adopted as:

  • pet;
  • watchman or search engine;
  • participant of exhibitions and competitions.
  • For a city apartment, you can find a healthy puppy with a relatively calm character. High requirements are always imposed on show class pets. They must have a pedigree, have the right physique and be able to demonstrate their qualities at exhibitions.

    When choosing a puppy, you should pay attention to his head. It should be proportional. The eyes of a healthy pet are always clear, without pus. The ears are clean, without visible inflammation. The stomach of the puppies is always soft. If there are seals, they may indicate the presence of an umbilical hernia.

    Paws need to be checked for the presence of all fingers. The puppy should not have any defects neither innate nor acquired. It is better to buy a dog in a nursery. Buying a dog from a private person, it is likely to buy an unclean pet.

    The cost of a German shepherd

    German shepherd in one picture

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