Goose species and description, names, photos of birds | Species of geese in Eurasia and the world

Geese are the name given to a significant number of birds belonging to the Anatidae family. This family also includes swans (larger than geese) and ducks, they are smaller.

Where do geese live

True geese are medium to large sized birds, always (with the exception of the Hawaiian goose) living near water areas. Most species in Europe, Asia and North America are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and wintering in the south.

The mating relationship of geese

A pair of geese create a family and stay together all their lives (up to 25 years), each year brings up new offspring.

How do geese fly long distances?

Migratory geese form a giant V-shaped wedge. This amazing shape helps each bird fly further than if it flew alone.

When the goose falls out of the wedge, it feels air resistance and quickly returns to formation to take advantage of the lift of the bird in front of it. When the goose at the head of the flock gets tired, it takes the last position in the ranks, leaving the other goose in the lead. They even yell to encourage those flying in front to maintain speed.

goose fidelity

Geese have a strong attachment to other birds in the group (flock). If someone gets sick, injured, or shot, a pair of geese leave formation and follow the goose down to help and protect.

They stay with the disabled goose until it dies or takes off again, then they catch up with the group or set off with another goose.

Geese spend most of their time looking for plant foods. All geese eat an exclusively vegetarian diet.

They scream loudly and straighten their long necks when they are afraid or threatened.

Geese tend to lay a small number of eggs. Both parents protect the nest and young, which usually results in a higher survival rate for goslings.

goose species


Most common Eurasian ancestor of all western domestic geese. It belongs to the subfamily Anserinae, family Anatidae (order Anseriformes). Breeds in temperate regions and winters from Britain to North Africa, India and China. The gray goose has a pale gray body. Paws and beak are pink in eastern, orange in western geese.

bean goose

Quite a large dark grey-brown goose with a typically small orange spot on the bill and orange feet. Breeds in tundra and winters in agricultural and wetlands.


In wild dry-noses, the heavy beak is completely black, the paws and feet are orange, and the eyes (irises) are painted burgundy. The domesticated swan sometimes has a white spot behind the beak and a bump at the base of the beak, which is not present in wild relatives. Males and females look the same except for longer beaks and necks on males.

mountain goose

This handsome, sturdy-bodied goose has double bands of dark feathers that wrap around its white head. The body is light grey, while the legs and beak are bright orange. Females and males are identical.

These birds fly higher than other birds. Scientists have discovered that their blood cells contain a special type of hemoglobin (blood protein) that quickly absorbs oxygen at high altitudes. Another advantage: their capillaries (small blood vessels) penetrate deep into the muscles, better carry oxygen to the muscle fibers.


It is a large, pale gray goose with a relatively small head. Its short, triangular beak is almost hidden by a prominent greenish-yellow cere (skin above the beak). The body is decorated with a number of large dark spots in lines across the shoulder blades and wing covers. Paws pink to deep red, feet black. In flight, dark tips are visible along the trailing edge of the wings.

nile goose

This bird is pale brown and grey, with bright brown or chestnut markings around the eyes, neck (collar-like), on parts of the wings and under the black tail. In sharp contrast, there are distinct white markings on the wings, complemented by intense emerald on the secondary feathers of males. There is also a distinct brown spot right in the center of the chest.

The female of this species is slightly smaller than the male. In addition, there are few or no clear differences between the sexes.

andean goose

Large goose with white plumage, except for wings and tail. An adult bird has a white head, neck, lower body, back, rump and most of the wings. Glossy black feathers are visible on the wings. Tail black. Shoulder blades with black and white feathers.


Males are grey-white with black stripes on the belly and upper back (some males are completely white-bellied). Females are darker on the lower body and have chestnut feathers on their heads.

white goose

Small and squat, with dark bluish gray feathers and black stripes on the upper body. Females and males are similar, females are slightly smaller. Juveniles are slightly duller in coloration than adults, with brown stripes on the upper body, gray spots on the head and neck, olive brown feet and a black bill.


white polar goose

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