Groundwater level, occurrence, change, types, characteristics

Groundwater is water that is located at a depth of up to 25 meters from the surface of the earth. It is formed due to various water bodies and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. They seep into the ground and accumulate there. Groundwater differs from groundwater in that it has no pressure. In addition, their difference is that soils are sensitive to changes in the atmosphere. The depth at which groundwater can be located does not exceed 25 meters.

Ground water level

Groundwater is in close proximity to the surface of the earth, however, its level may vary depending on the terrain and season. It will rise in high humidity, especially when it rains heavily and snow melts. And also the level is affected by nearby rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. During the drought period, the groundwater level drops. At this time, he is considered the lowest.

The groundwater level is divided into two types:

Groundwater level, occurrence, change, types, characteristics
  • low when the level does not reach 2 meters. Buildings can be built on such terrain;
  • high level over 2 meters.
  • If you make incorrect calculations of the depth of groundwater, then this threatens: flooding the building, destruction of the foundation and other problems.

    Groundwater occurrence

    To find out where exactly the groundwater lies, you can first conduct simple observations. When the depth of the occurrence is small, the following signs will be visible:

  • the appearance of fog in the morning, in certain areas of the Earth;
  • cloud of midges, “hanging” above the ground in the evening;
  • site where moistureloving plants grow well.
  • And you can also apply another folk way. Into a clay pot, pour any moisture-absorbing material (for example, salt or sugar). Then weigh it carefully. Pour into a piece of fabric and bury in the ground to a depth of 50 centimeters. After a day to open and weigh again. Depending on the difference in weight, it will be possible to find out how close water is to the surface of the earth.

    You can also learn about the presence of groundwater from the hydrogeological map of the area. But the most effective way is exploration drilling. The column method is most often used.


    When soil water appears naturally natural, then it is suitable for drinking. The contamination of the liquid is affected by the proximity of villages and cities, as well as the proximity of water to the surface of the earth.

    Groundwater is divided into types that differ in their mineralization, so they are as follows:

  • insipid;
  • slightly salty;
  • brackish;
  • salty;
  • brines.
  • The hardness of ground water is also distinguished:

  • general. It is divided into five types: very soft water, soft ground water, moderately hard water, hard water, very hard ground water;
  • carbonate;
  • non-carbonate.
  • In addition, there is groundwater, which contains a lot of harmful substances. Such water is usually located near landfills, with burials of chemical or radioactive waste.

    Disadvantages of groundwater

    Groundwater also has its drawbacks, for example:

  • various microorganisms (and pathogens too) in the composition of water;
  • rigidity. This affects the decrease in the lumen of the pipes through which water is supplied, since specific deposits are deposited on them;
  • turbidity, due to the fact that there are certain particles in the composition of the water;
  • impurities in groundwater of various substances, microorganisms, salts and gases. All of them are able to change not only the color, but also the taste of water, its smell;
  • high percentage of minerals. It changes the taste of water, so there is a metallic taste;
  • seepage of nitrates, ammonia into groundwater. They are very dangerous to human health.
  • In order for the water to become much better, it is necessary to carefully process it. This will help rid it of various contaminants.

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